|Definition||Influenza is an acute infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract with a viral nature of occurrence. It can be caused by a different combination of viruses, of which there are about 200, as well as bacteria.|
|Specialty||Virology and microbiology|
|History||In 1580, a large-scale flu pandemic was first documented, by which time the disease was nameless. Only in the XVI century in Italy, it was finally given the name “influenza”. In 1918-1920, the deadliest pandemic named the Spanish flu caused by the H1N1 virus occurred. In 1933, influenza of type A virus was first identified by virologists Wilson Smith, Christopher Andrews, and Patrick Laidlaw of the National Institute for Medical Research, London. In 1940, it became known that the influenza virus can be cultivated on chicken embryos, which significantly helped science in further research.|
|Symptoms||The flu usually starts acutely. The severity of the disease depends on many factors: general health, age, whether the patient has previously been in contact with this type of virus. In the case of a mild form of influenza, body temperature may remain normal or rise no higher than 38 ° C, symptoms of infectious toxicosis are mild or absent.|
|Causes||The cause of the disease are the seasonal viruses (autumn and winter). There are different types of influenza: A, B, and C. Mild forms of the disease are caused by type C.|
|Virology||The most common route of transmission of infection is airborne. When coughing, sneezing, talking, particles of saliva, mucus, sputum with pathogenic microflora, including influenza viruses, are ejected from the nasopharynx of a patient or virus carrier.|
|Prevention||Influenza vaccination is an effective means of preventing the disease. It is recommended to get vaccinated in September or October. WHO annually recommends this to people at risk and workers in certain professions. These categories include pregnant women, children from 6 months to 5 years old, the elderly and people with chronic diseases, medical workers, teachers, educators, salespeople.|
|Diagnostic Method||Influenza is diagnosed by clinical manifestations. If identification of the etiological factor is required, rapid tests are used to detect viral antigen, tests of samples from the throat, nose, RT-PCR method.|
|Treatment||If the person is not at high risk, influenza is treated symptomatically. Usually, bed rest, plenty of warm drink, taking antipyretic, antitussive drugs, isotonic water for washing the nasal cavity, and vasoconstrictor drops are assigned. Any remedy for colds and flu should be prescribed by a doctor. In severe conditions and complications, treatment is carried out in a hospital.|
|Duration||If the flu proceeds without complications, the febrile period lasts 2-4 days and the illness ends within 5-10 days. Repeated rises in body temperature are possible, but they are usually due to the layering of the bacterial flora or other viral respiratory infection. Post-infectious asthenia may persist for 2-3 weeks after the flu: fatigue, weakness, headache, irritability, and insomnia.|
|Prognosis||Flu patients require constant monitoring by health workers, but, unfortunately, about 30% of patients are hospitalized late – after 5-6 days of illness, which leads to a protracted course of pneumonia and other complications.|
|Complications||The most common complication of influenza is pneumonia, as well as rhinitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, otitis media. Complications of the cardiovascular system are more common in the elderly. Myocarditis and pericarditis (an inflammatory disease of the muscles of the heart that can lead to heart failure) also may develop.|
|Frequency in Population||A clear dependence of the level of morbidity of the urban population on the population of the city is revealed. The highest epidemic incidence of acute respiratory infections was observed in cities with a population of 1 million or more – 29.7%; in cities with a population of 500 thousand to 1 million – 24.1%. In cities with a population of less than 500 thousand – 22%.|
|Deaths||CDC estimates that flu has resulted in 9 million – 41 million illnesses, 140,000 – 710,000 hospitalizations, and 12,000 – 52,000 deaths annually between 2010 and 2020.|
|Society||In society, influenza is usually regarded as simple “seasonal cold” which may lead to dangerous delusions about not needing a vaccination for it.|
📝 Influenza Research Papers Examples
- Influenza Pandemic Planning CaseMany cases in the medical history show the importance of healthcare system units' awareness of the outcomes of infectious disease epidemics such as influenza for both population and health workers.
- Influenza Epidemiology in North AfricaThe research results indicate that there has been an increase from 3.4% to 5.1% occurrence of influenza-type diseases in North Africa throughout 2005-2009.
- Vaccination for Healthcare WorkersThe lack of vaccination for healthcare workers is one of the causes of spreading the influenza virus in states where guidelines regarding mandatory vaccination are not followed.
- PICOT Statement: Influenza VaccinationThis work considers the PICOT question: is mandatory influenza vaccinations for employees, help prevent the spread of the virus to patients with who they come in contact.
- Epidemiology: HIV&AIDS, Syphilis, Influenza A in MiamiThe overall sexually transmitted disease rates in Miami-Dade are below the Florida average, yet the situation is different with syphilis rates.
- Epidemiology Assignment: Communicable Illnesses in MiamiCommunicable illnesses pose various threats to public health and can even jeopardize the development of the society.
- Epidemiology: Hepatitis B, Influenza, Syphilis in MiamiIn order to assess the potential threat of infectious ailments in Miami, three illnesses can be taken as a basis – hepatitis B, influenza, and syphilis.
- Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases in MiamiIn Miami, the situation with the Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be regarded as alarming since the rates of morbidity increased within the last years.
- Rabies, AIDS, Hepatitis B, and Influenza in MiamiThis paper presents epidemiological and surveillance data related to rabies, AIDS, and hepatitis B in Miami, Florida.
- Epidemiology of InfluenzaThis paper will describe the communicable disease, social determinants that affect influenza's development and epidemiologic triangle.
- Pediatric-Vaccines Presentation in the USIn the United States, children have to get vaccinated regularly. The purpose of immunization is to protect human health from existing diseases and illnesses.
- Scroll of Pediatric Vaccines OverviewWhen most people are immunized, it makes the environment rather safe for the few that are not. Collective immune safety is not viable when the majority chooses not to vaccinate.
- What’s Important Pediatric VaccinesEducation about vaccines and diseases that they prevent is especially relevant to parents to support the well-being of their children.
- PICOT Statement for the Area of InterestPICOT refers to the acronym for those elements that make up a clinical question, the elements are patient population, intervention, comparison intervention, outcome, and time.
- Influenza. Descriptive AnalysisInfluenza is common in Florida because of its geographic and demographic features. It leads to deaths, hospitalization, and costs millions of dollars in medical care for any season.
- Healthy People 2020 on Measles, Tuberculosis, FluThe aim of the Healthy People 2020 Initiative is to reduce the effects of communicable diseases that are known to interfere with the socio-economic development of the community.
- The Health People 2020 on Measles, Polio, InfluenzaThis paper reviews the Health People 2020 program by the Miami Health Department that discusses communicable diseases – measles, polio, and influenza.
- Community Health: 2009 H1N1 FluThe purpose of this article is to review interprofessional collaboration and how it was applied in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak.
- Informing on Vaccination and Immunization BenefitsThe aim of this paper is to analyze various vaccine types in order to better inform parents about the benefits of vaccination.
- Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)This paper outlines the signs and symptoms of the diseases caused by Novel avian influenza A (H7N9), factors contributing to emergence and re-emergence, and prevention measures.
🏆 Best Influenza Essay Titles
- Guillain-barre Syndrome After Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Adults
- IgA Responses Following Recurrent Influenza Virus Vaccination
- Virtual Screen for Repurposing of Drugs for Candidate Influenza an M2 Ion-channel Inhibitors
- Modeling the Spatial Patterns of Influenza Incidence in Sweden
- Structural and Functional Motifs in Influenza Virus RNAs
- Agribusiness Firm Value Impacts of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak
- Advances and Remaining Challenges in the Study of Influenza and Anthrax Infection in Lung Cell Culture
- Influenza Vaccination: Effectiveness, Indications, and Limits in the Pediatric Population
- The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History
- H1N1 Control Strategy: Policy, Power and Politics
For the public to comply with a policy, they must first be enlightened about the issue for which the policy was developed.
- The Global Economic Effects of Pandemic Influenza
- Modeling Influenza-like Illness Activity in the United States
- Immunogenicity and Clinical Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy
- Disease and Fertility: Evidence From the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Sweden
- Broadly Protective Strategies Against Influenza Viruses: Universal Vaccines and Therapeutics
- The 1918 Influenza Epidemic’s Effects on Sex Differentials in Mortality in the United States
- AS03 and MF59-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines in Children
- Influenza: Features, Symptoms, Preventive Measures
- The Worldwide Influenza Epidemic in the US
- Improving Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare
- Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Rhinovirus and Influenza Virus Infection
- Treating Influenza Infection, From Now and Into the Future
- Influenza Vaccination for Pregnant Health Care Workers
- Contracting for On-time Delivery in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Supply Chain
- Characterization and Evolutionary Analysis of H3N2 Influenza a Virus Glycosylation in Southern China
- The Differentiation and Protective Function of Cytolytic CD4 T Cells in Influenza Infection
- Sunlight and Protection Against Influenza
- Vaccinating Children Against the Seasonal Influenza
- Seasonal Influenza H3N2 Virus Infection
- The Spanish Influenza Among Norwegian Ethnic Minorities: 1918-1919
- Cell Receptors for Influenza a Viruses and the Innate Immune Response
- Influenza Vaccine for Elderly and Young Children
- Ethics and Preparedness Planning for an Influenza Pandemic
- Genetic Characteristic and Global Transmission of Influenza an H9N2 Virus
- 2009 H1N1 Swine Influenza: Analysis
- Swine Influenza and Vaccines: An Alternative Approach for Decision Making About Pandemic Prevention
- Autophagosomal Protein Dynamics and Influenza Virus Infection
- Global Influenza Vaccine Market: Trends & Opportunities (2014-19)
- The Cellular DExD/H-Box RNA Helicase UAP56 Co-localizes With the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein
- Cell Culture for Producing Influenza Vaccines
- Avian Influenza and Its Expected Ramifications
❓ Influenza Research Questions
- How Safe Is Flu Vaccination?
- What Is Influenza, Avian Flu, and the Effects of the Past and Upcoming Pandemic?
- Influenza Virus and Glycemic Variability in Diabetes: A Killer Combination?
- Should People Get Immunised Against Influenza?
- What Is the Incubation Period for Influenza?
- What Has Lead Avian Influenza to Affect Humans?
- Which Influenza Vaccines Are Most Likely To Cause Reactions?
- How Pneumonia Influenza Manifests, Why It Appears and How It Can Be Overcome?
- At What Age Is the Influenza Vaccination Given?
- What Are the Known Strains of Influenza?
- What Types of Influenza Vaccines?
- Why Is Influenza Prevention Needed?
- What Is Healthcare Workers’ Risk Perception and Willingness to Report to Work During an Influenza Pandemic?
- Why Do Pregnant Women Need to Get Vaccinated Against the Flu?
- What Is the History and Development of Influenza?
- What Are the Most Severe Complications of Influenza?
- What Is the Structure and Function of Neuraminidase of the Influenza Virus?
- What Are the Main Symptoms of the Influenza?
- What Determines Influenza Vaccination Take‐up of Elderly Europeans?
- What Is the Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Distribution Protocol?
- What Are the Consequences of the Swine Influenza for the Body?
- Why Do Health Workers Need to Be Vaccinated?
- What Was Unique About Influenza?
- What Are the Ways of Influenza Vaccine Administration?
- What Are the Flu Symptoms and What to Do if You Get Sick?
- How the Body Defends Itself Against the Influenza Virus?
- What Explains Cross-city Variation in Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic?
- Can I Get the Influenza Vaccine if I Have a Chronic Illness?
- Can Trade Policies Soften the Economic Impacts of an Avian Influenza Outbreak?
- What Is the NYC Government’s Response to the Flu Outbreak?