Pharmacology Examples for Free

Pharmacology is the study of how chemicals affect living organisms. It is a vital branch of medicine that helps us understand how different drugs work in the body and what causes their effects.

A good understanding of pharmacology is essential for anyone wanting to write a paper or an article on the subject. There are many resources you may use to improve your knowledge of pharmacology, including essay samples, online courses, and textbooks. Reading them will help you develop a strong foundation in pharmacology and produce an excellent essay with little effort.

Pharmacology

Pharmacological Management of UTI and Nursing Implications

Introduction Urinary tract infections are bacterial infections targeting the urinary tract. They affect over 150 million people in the world each year, including children. The main symptoms indicating the presence of a UTI include changes in frequency and urgency of urination, burning on urination, urinary incontinence, and dysuria. In infants,...

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Pharmacology: Half-Life of Elimination

The half-life of elimination which is also known as the biological half-life is defined as the time required for the serum drug concentration to reach 50%. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common test that evaluates kidney function in filtering the blood, most often used to assess acute and...

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment with Supplement

Introduction A non-malignant enlargement of smooth muscle and prostate epithet cells is scientifically known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An estimated 50-70% of men over 50 years of age are affected by BPH/LUTS (“Singapore Urological Association,” 2017). The frequency of BPH also grew from 80% to 90% as the age...

Cardiovascular Events: The Impact and Safety of Low-Dose Aspirin

Introduction On the basis of the PICOT question that establishes the process of research and facilitates the development of its results the study dedicated to the impact and safety of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes was conducted. This work identifies the practice issue...

Care Plan Implementation for Opioid Addicts

To create a proper care plan for a certain social group, it is of crucial importance to define various peculiarities concerning the target group. Hence, the group chosen for this assignment consists of people who struggle with opioid addiction as a result of a medical prescription for severe painkillers like...

Connection Between Poor Pain Management and Opioid Addiction

Pain management currently remains one of the most complicated research questions due to the fact that the peculiarities of its proper control patterns are not available to the practitioners. The issue becomes especially significant in terms of research, considering the fact that most cases of severe and chronic pains are...

The Use of Sedatives and Analgesics: Assessment and Safety Plan

Clinical practice guidelines provide a practical approach in health care. Critically ill adult may experience, pain, confusion anxiety and stress, which require sedatives to reduce the level of discomfort. Neuromuscular program may be used for extreme cases of pain. Thus, care providers must understand clinical practice guidelines for efficient health...

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Researching Polypharmacy and Aging

Introduction Polypharmacy is a disturbing health issue that happens to be very common among the elderly. It is fraught with many risks and consequences and can lead to different health problems. To avoid such outcomes polypharmacy should be strictly controlled. What is polypharmacy? There is no standard definition of polypharmacy,...

PICOT Analyse – The Setting of the Problem

Developing a PICOT Question PICOT Question: In ICU patients, do wearing antimicrobial scrubs compared to the standard uniforms prevent the transmission of hospital-acquired infections during the hospital stay? P: ICU patients I: Antimicrobial scrubs C: Standard Uniform O: Reduced transmission of hospital-acquired infections T: The length of hospital stay The...

Treatment for Diabetes Analysis

Until the late 1950s, insulin was the only pharmacological treatment of diabetes, and it was serendipity that handled the next paradigm shift in anti-diabetic therapy. The last three decades have witnessed discoveries that have revolutionized the clinical management of both types I and II diabetes with the latest discoveries of...

Helping the Elderly to Stay Safe from Polypharmacy

Summary Polypharmacy is a medication safety issue that becomes more and more disturbing among old-aged patients. Most commonly polypharmacy can be avoided by excluding the medications a patient, in fact, does not need. If all drugs indeed are necessary, the intake of them should be strictly controlled by a case...

Ibuprofen: The Magical Cure

Introduction Ibuprofen was discovered in the 1960s. The drug came out of a propionic acid test carried out during a research by Dr. Stewart Adams and his team. The discovery of the drug was triggered by the team’s desire to come up with a drug that had fewer side effects...

Polypharmacy as a Danger for Adults’ Health

Introduction Polypharmacy is a major concern for a vast range of people throughout the world. The notion implies excessive medication use and is considered to be the most problematic issue for elderly people who have certain health problems. It is assumed that seniors are less likely to benefit from some...

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Drug Therapy Problem – Unnecessary Drugs During Therapy

Problem Identification Drug therapy problem occurs in situations when the therapeutic needs of patients fail to be met. One of the treatment problems that could occur in the case of a patient with Grave’s disease is an adverse reaction to the drug (Brent, 2008). Issuing the patient with a small...

How Can Case Managers Help the Elder to Stay Safe?

Polypharmacy is a simultaneous intake of four or more medicines aiming to manage the health problem. Aged people are especially responsive to polypharmacy therapy. Around 30 percent of prescriptions in the United States are given to elderly patients over 65 (Wooten & Galavis, 2005, p. 45). Usually, there are four...

Isuprel: Medication Review

Summary Isuprel is a medication that is applicable in treatment of mainly cardiovascular disorders such as heart block, cardiac arrest, bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and torsades de pointes, and respiratory disorders like asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. In pharmacodynamics, Isuprel is a beta-adrenergic agonist, which stimulates heartbeat and causes relaxation of smooth...

Assay Methods for Vitamins B12 and D

Introduction Vitamin B12 refers to active vitamers, known as Cobalamins and they contain cobalt. The structure of Vitamin B12 consists a Corrin (macrocyclic ring), which is formed through linking four-reduced pyrole rings. Crystalline Vitamin B12 can be heated for upto 100 degrees centigrades without loosing its stableness. More to this...

Assay Methods for Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a combination of compounds, which consists of 9 -10-secosteroids. The 10-secosteroids only differ in the structure of the side chains and are thus identified as a single entity since they are structurally related to four-ringed compounds (cyclopentanoperhydrophenahthrenes). Vitamin D derives its photochemical reactions from this compound. D...

Prescription Drug Abuse or Overdose Problem Solving

Medical prescription refers to a health care plan that a medical practitioner issues to the patient in form of instructions that describe the quantity, duration, and type of medical drugs to be taken by the patient. Basically, prescriptions refer to directions to take certain medications. Medical prescriptions should be adhered...

The Impact of Prescription Drug Importation Programs in Florida

The law on Prescription Drug Importation Programs, enacted in 2019, facilitates patients’ access to medications through their import from Canada and other countries into Florida. The introduction of this legislation is highly relevant since high prices for prescription drugs have been an urgent concern for U.S. society over decades (Florida’s...

The Use of Pharmacology in the Treatment of Mental Health Issues

Introduction Analysing the global media, it can be seen that there are evidences of an overwhelming criticism directed toward prescription medication. A certain part of such criticism is directed toward the products of psychopharmacology. Analysing the impact of using psychopharmacology in the treatment of mental health, it can be stated...

Four Main Types of Drugs Cost Analysis

Introduction The modern world has become a benchmark for medical science, as most patients today receive timely and effective therapy. This is mainly due to the improvement of pharmaceutical technology for both prescription and non-prescription drugs. At the same time, there is unprecedented competition in pharmacy chains — the same...

The Problem of Medication Prescription Errors

While it is largely evident that in nearly all situations that involve the impact of the human factor, the occurrence of mistakes is inevitable. However, the significance of such mistakes varies greatly in the context of each particular situation. Moreover, it could be suggested that the health care system in...

United States Healthcare Policy Structures: Drug Pricing

An elevated level of spending on prescription drugs in the United States is a growing public concern nowadays. US drug prices are among the highest in the world and largely define the overall high level of healthcare spending in the country (Sarnak, Squires, Kuzmak, & Bishop, 2017). Compared to many...

Antibiotic-Related Diarrhea and Medication Errors

Antibiotic-related diarrhea is caused by the infection with a bacterium – Clostridium difficile. These symptoms are most common in older adults who were hospitalized and had severe antibiotic therapy (Crowther & Wilcox, 2015). The treatment of Clostridium difficile with the administration of antibiotics should be elaborate and timely. The full...

Alternative Treatment for Chronic Pain and Addiction

Chronic pain treatment is usually carried out with the use of opioids, which in turn causes addiction. According to the definition of the opioid use disorder (OUD), it is associated with physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms in case of drug abandonment (Volkow, Jones, Einstein, & Wargo, 2019). Numerous researchers, physicians,...

Asthma Medications for a Patient-Runner

The purpose of this post is to discuss the medications appropriate to address symptoms of asthma in John, a 21-year-old male who is interested in running. The clinical problem is that John suffers from asthma in the form of a dry non-productive cough that is observed for about twelve weeks...

Medication Therapy: Procedures and Protocols

Medication therapy is a vital and necessary aspect for the treatment and improvement of patient care in healthcare facilities. However, there are numerous risks, ethical concerns, and potential for errors with medications. Therefore, management with strict procedures and protocols is required to ensure professional and safe storage, labeling, transport, prescription,...

OCT Drugs: Midol

Summary and Recommendations The OTC market can be categorized based on organization, appropriation channel, route of administration, and location. The recommendations provided in this section would reposition the company to improve sales. First, Bayer Corporation can improve Midol sales using packaging, content advertising, and target responsiveness while describing the shortcomings...

Legal and Professional Issues Unique to Prescribing in Florida

Medical prescriptions always involve a significant extent of liability on behalf of nurses who provide them to patients. The described responsibility is particularly high for a Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner, whose choices define the mental well-being of patients. Due to the specifics of legal standards for prescriptions of psychiatric...

Pharmacist’s Professional Identity and Stewardship

Role in Health Care Team For this interview, it was chosen to speak with a fellow peer working as a pharmacist. The role of professionals in this field is continuously evolving since the health care environment is always changing due to the impact of technologies, the greater involvement of patients...

Diabetes Management and Pharmacological Effects

Pharmacological Effects of Herbal Supplements in the Management of Diabetes and Nursing Implications Management of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder. Chronic disorder (Chang et al., 2013). Two types of diabetes to manage. Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent. Type 2 diabetes is noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Disease management depends on...

Sertraline Protocol: Genetic Variations

Though standardized clinical guidelines noticeably improved practitioners’ ability to provide patients with high-quality healthcare, the presence of genetic variations calls for a more individual approach to treatment. Recent scientific advances in genetics and genomics allow healthcare professionals to adjust current protocols, meeting one’s specific needs. This paper briefly examines clinical...

Patient-Centered Drug Prescription and Education

Findings and Concern In the review of the medication list of the patient in the case study, an apparent major concern is that drug interactions have the potential of causing some adverse effects. In this view, mechanisms of action, drug interactions, and adverse effects are critical for the safe and...

Herbal and Complementary Therapies for Depression

Symptoms of Depression A bleak and depressed state. Inability to make a decision. Loss of interest in life and goals. A lasting sense of physical fatigue. Overeating or a significant decrease in appetite (Henneghan & Harrison, 2015). Drowsiness or insomnia, constant irritability. Treatment of Depression with Complementary Therapies Developing a...

Topamax, Its Side Effects and Patient Education

The patient believes that the Topamax is causing the numbness and tingling. Educate the patient regarding Topamax use and its side effects. Topiramate is an anticonvulsant (antiepileptic) drug that is used alone or in conjunction with other treatments for controlling or preventing epileptic seizures. The key point associated with the...

Alendronate for Managing and Treating Osteoporosis

Indications for Use Alendronate is used to treat osteoporosis in the elderly (Cosman et al., 2014). A preventive remedy to protect from a possible threat. The drug is suitable for recovery after surgery. The medicine for different ages. Acute and continuous pain in the joints. Changes in the bone structure...

Herbal Supplements for Patient with Obstruction

A herbal supplement is recommended due to the presence of a single symptom of obstruction, i.e., difficulty with micturition. This implies that the severity of the illness is mild. At this stage, the patient does not require urgent interventions, thus providing a prime entry point for the use of herbal...

Medical Drugs in the United States

The organization is fully committed to patient-centered care and actively focused on quality improvement through initiatives that will enhance patient outcomes. Quality improvement initiatives contribute to meeting internal goals of quality indicators as well as positively impacting patients and their families. This proposal will outline the initiative to reduce the...

Pain Management: Non- and Pharmacological Treatment

In case the patient is already receiving epidural injections and has some medication prescribed, it would be impossible to proceed with any intervention that has been planned initially. The reason for such a decision is that it is necessary to find out what drugs and in what dosage the patient...

Infectious and Dermatological Issues Drug Therapies

Antimicrobial Classes and Their Side Effects Penicillin: antibacterial, cell wall inhibitor (Adams, Holland, & Urban, 2013). Side effects: diarrhea, nausea, possible pain at the injection site, risk of superinfections. The most serious possible side effect is anaphylaxis. Cephalosporin: antibacterial, cell wall inhibitor. Side effects: “diarrhea, abdominal cramping, nausea, fatigue, rash,...

Headache Medication for a Breastfeeding Patient

The purpose of this discussion is to select appropriate medications depending on a certain case. Thus, the case of Mia, a 35-year-old female with severe headaches, is selected. The clinical problem is the following one: the woman experiences occasional severe headaches (migraines) which make her take drugs that were not...

Back Pain Medication Prescription

What Are the Findings Following Reviewing This Medication List? A 45-year-old woman presents to a clinic with back pain as the main complaint and describes it as her chronic condition that she has had during the last ten years. The patient states that she “is just not feeling good.” The...

Improvement of Medication Reconciliation Practices

Nursing Project Patient safety is a key element during transitions in care. Medication omissions and dosing errors during changes of care settings can be sources of avoidable patient harm. The occurrence of errors can be substantially reduced through medication reconciliation, which can be described as “the task of bridging discrepancies...

Pinkeye Herbal Treatment and Complementary Therapy

Treatment of Viral Conjunctivitis The treatment of the symptoms of SARS (Córdova et al., 2014). Protection from the bright light. Tea broths as one of the medicines. Preparations on a flower basis. Compresses at night and rinsing. One week of a full-fledged treatment. Treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis The determination of...

Osteoarthritis Pain Medicine and Lifestyle Change

In the case of an 85-year-old male, the practitioner provided very detailed prescriptions regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The focus on acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and COX-2 inhibitors as medications to cope with pain associated with osteoarthritis is reasonable, and these drugs are proposed according to clinical guidelines (Arendt-Nielsen, Egsgaard, & Petersen,...

Anti-Depression Non- and Medication Treatment

In the post on the case of Fatima Antole, you provide the detailed information regarding the medication and non-medication treatment for the woman who suffers from depression. It is possible to state that the prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is a reasonable choice for this case because of...

Migraine Medications for a Breastfeeding Patient

If the use of Imitrex in the form of a spray is not appropriate for the case of Mia, it is also possible to propose taking such sumatriptan as Imigran which is distributed in the form of tablets. However, it is important to accentuate the fact that the patient should...

The Concept of Homeopathic Remedy

Symptoms Several symptoms were identified during this exercise. The main symptom was persistent coughing. The coughs had been recorded for two days. The coughs were also characterized by expectorations and congestions. The coughed-up mucus was thick. The symptoms were observed to diminish when in the open air (Moghe, Gangal, &...

Urinary Tract Infection and Its Medical Treatment

In treatment plan for a 49-year-old female, it is possible to find a lot of important information regarding the therapy for a urinary tract infection and ways of preventing recurrent infections. In most cases, the proposed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is discussed as an effective medication to cope with urinary tract infections caused...

Polypharmacy in Older Patients

Polypharmacy is a complex issue especially in the case of older patients. Chemical or physicochemical drug interactions lead to the formation of drug-drug or drug-disease compounds, which differ in activity from the starting baseline. Applying multiple incongruous kinds of medications may lead to a change in pharmacological effect as well...

Cytarabine and Its Neurological Side Effects

Name of the Drug Cytarabine, also known as Ara-C and Arabinosylcytosine. Type of the Drug It is an antineoplastic, cytotoxic (anti-cancer) medicine. Medical Use Its primary purpose is treatment of leukemia and its different forms, which include acute lymphocitic leukemia, and acute and chronic forms of myelogenous leukemia. The drug...

Cannabis Usage Importance

Cannabis smoking in Asia and Europe The history of cannabis smoking begins in prehistoric times. This practice was popular both in Asia and Europe (although it is believed to have initially appeared in Asia) and gradually spread to other continents. Its effects on human health are rather controversial. Nevertheless, mostly...

Polypharmacy in Elderly

Firstly, the ranking of the medications, which are described in the case, has to be presented. In this instance, the hierarchy of the most inappropriate medication has to be generated. The utilization of some of the medications is unacceptable for the elderly due to the increased adverse effects on health...

Medication Reconciliation Practices Improvement

Introduction Patient safety is a key element during transitions in care. Medication omissions and dosing errors during changes in care settings can be sources of avoidable patient harm. The occurrence of errors can be substantially reduced through medication reconciliation, which can be described as “the task of bridging discrepancies in...

Treating Aggression in Children and Teenagers

Introduction To treat aggression in children and teenagers, it is possible to apply different types of antipsychotics. In order to address the condition in a 15-year-old healthy male individual, such medication as risperidone can be used (Mauri et al., 2014). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the appropriate...

Gabapentin Medication and Its Mechanism of Action

Indications and Mechanism of Action Gabapentin is a generic name of neurontin, a medication in the form of capsules and tablets which are used as a part of adjunctive therapy for patients with partial onset seizures. With the help of the chosen drug, adult patients, as well as patients older...

Hydroxyurea Effects on Sickle Cell Disease Progression

HU Effects on Progression of SCD Symptoms Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a lifelong, debilitating medical condition which is associated with specific chronic and acute patient complications. The clinical course of the disease can be highly variable in different patients and may range from an early death to merely a...

Prescription Opioid Epidemic and Feeding Issues

Since the issue of the prescribed opioid epidemic is becoming increasingly more difficult to control in the United States, the introduction of legal repercussions, i.e., fines and imprisonment for doctors, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical executives that encourage the opioid epidemic by prescribing strong opioids in large doses, must be viewed as...

Clozapine Treatment for Paranoid Schizophrenia

Clozapine would be an effective choice for Caitlyn since this medication is prescribed for individuals suffering from severe forms of schizophrenia who do not respond to standard antipsychotic drug treatment for a long time (Novartis, n.d.). Apart from resistance to other antipsychotic medicines, clozapine is prescribed when the patient demonstrates...

Antibiotic Therapy Against Ear and Throat Pain

Antibiotics are pharmacological agents meant to treat infections by targeting the responsible bacteria. The correct use of antibiotics treats many life-threatening bacterial infections thus saving lives. Conversely, wrong antibiotic application leads to antimicrobial resistance, which the European Union estimates to cause at least 25,000 mortalities and economic losses of 1.5...

Problem of Medical Errors

Although it is undeniable that medical errors occur in a hospital setting, professionals and institutions should direct their efforts towards ensuring that the number of mistakes is minimized and the patients are informed regarding these issues. While prescribing medication, it is crucial to pay attention to each step and gather...

Antimicrobial Classes and Resistance

Introduction It should be noted that antimicrobial classes are a group of microbicides, each of which is characterized by its spectrum of action, indications for use, and the presence of particular side effects. This substance category is of natural or semisynthetic origin. Each substance is produced by extracting it from...

Probiotics Effects at Preventing Diarrhea

Introduction It has been identified that Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is among the most common reasons for the development of complications associated with the use of antibiotics during treatment (Lau & Chamberlain, 2016). Currently, CDI is showing growth in occurrence, with the increasing costs of treatment and substantial rates of...

Drug to Drug and Food-Drug Interactions Prevention

Drug to Drug Interactions Prevention Among the chronic patients with conditions other than cancer, many are affected by polypharmacy – the prescription of multiple types of drugs that can potentially interact with one another and cause adverse effects on the health of the patients or interfere with each other’s medical...

Antibiotics Resistance in Children: Cultivating Change

The issue is the antibiotic resistance in children, and the solution is to cultivate the patient-centered healthcare while highlighting its need with the assistance of a combination of the research, education, and practice. The plan includes stages such as research, increasing awareness about the necessity of the change (education and...