In the case of an 85-year-old male, the practitioner provided very detailed prescriptions regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. The focus on acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and COX-2 inhibitors as medications to cope with pain associated with osteoarthritis is reasonable, and these drugs are proposed according to clinical guidelines (Arendt-Nielsen, Egsgaard, & Petersen, 2016). Acetaminophen is appropriately selected for this case as a drug for the primary therapy because of the patient’s age and risks of adverse effects associated with the work of the gastrointestinal tract and possible bleedings (Prior, Harrison, & Frustaci, 2014). However, if the patient has no problems with the gastrointestinal tract and if acetaminophen seems to be ineffective, researchers and clinicians also propose to use COX-2 inhibitors instead of NSAIDs (Arendt-Nielsen et al., 2016; Prior et al., 2014). The reason is that their effects are higher than effects of acetaminophen, and risks of complications are minimal in comparison to NSAIDs. Therefore, COX-2 inhibitors can be discussed as alternatives if acetaminophen is ineffective.
In addition to the lifestyle modifications, it is possible to focus more on an appropriate diet. In order to lose weight and improve his physical state, the patient should consume more vegetables and fruits that include antioxidants. Omega-3 fatty acids should also be added to a regular diet. Dieticians also propose drinking ginger tea to prevent the inflammation of joints. The consumption of saturated fats, sugars, and salt should be limited (Woo & Robinson, 2016; Prior et al., 2014). This diet is effective to relieve pain in joints and contribute to losing weight without limiting the consumption of minerals and vitamins.
Arendt-Nielsen, L., Egsgaard, L. L., & Petersen, K. K. (2016). Evidence for a central mode of action for etoricoxib (COX-2 Inhibitor) in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Pain, 157(8), 1634-1644.
Prior, M. J., Harrison, D. D., & Frustaci, M. E. (2014). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12 week trial of acetaminophen extended release for the treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 30(11), 2377-2387.
Woo, T. M., & Robinson, M. V. (2016). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurse prescribers (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.