Until the late 1950s, insulin was the only pharmacological treatment of diabetes, and it was serendipity that handled the next paradigm shift in anti-diabetic therapy. The last three decades have witnessed discoveries that have revolutionized the clinical management of both types I and II diabetes with the latest discoveries of new pharmacological targets. The past discoveries of oral antidiabetic drugs were not the result of a systematic, step-by-step approach but rather a matter of chance.
Although the new discoveries of antidiabetic drugs appear on the market, diabetic patients still suffer from diseases and side effects of these discoveries (Mooranian, et al., 2014). Most of the discovered drugs are effective lowering the variation between the troughs and peaks of blood glucose level in diabetic patients. The recent discoveries such as glipizide, a family of sulphonylureas improves the production of insulin and enhances the sensitivity of insulin. Metformin, associated with biguanides, lowers the production of glucose in the liver as well as lowering the density of lipoproteins (Mooranian, et al., 2014). Nevertheless, the hypoglycemia risks and development of toxins in the guts are the major concern linked to these drugs, especially with the presence of a compromised function of the liver and kidney (Mooranian, et al., 2014). Some type II drugs such as gliclazide have extra-pancreatic effects such as antioxidants, antiplatelet and antiradical effects. Since gliclazide has better glycemic regulation than insulin alone, some patient continue to use these drugs after the loss of insulin secretion.
Since management of diabetic is a self-monitory and self-management approach, the diagnosed patients should be provided with substantial education regarding the new emerging drugs used for the control of diabetes. Understanding the knowledge of prescribed medication may result in optimal control of diabetes.
Drugs are a significant element of medical therapy. A response to the drug can vary among patient and results in adverse effects that cause harm in some case. Most of the unwanted outcome of using these drugs occurs when another substance is consumed. Food and medication are often consumed together. Connect a regular event like intake of food and administration of the drug can improve the adherence of the patient to the treatment regime. However, certain food intake can develop an interaction through altered mechanism activities that are a determinant of systematic availability of the drug. Food may impact bioavailability, excretion and metabolism of certain medications. When drugs are administered to patients, certain constituent of the food may interact with the drug increasing or reducing its therapist or toxic effects.
Gumieniczek et al. (2014) seek to investigate the accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, precision and linearity of gliclazide and glipizide, drugs the sulfotransferase. These drugs consist of phase II conjugation enzymes fore xenobiotics detoxification and activity modulation of physiologically significant endobiotics like steroids, thyroid hormones, and neurotransmitters. The enzymes in these drugs speeds u the transferee of a sulfury group to an acceptor substrate that may be a hydroxyl, group. Some fruit juices have shown to inhibit sulfotransferase that is expressed in extrahepatic tissues such as the intestine. According to Mooranian et al. (2014), sulfotransferase activities may be inhibited when patients are exposed to certain dietary chemicals like catechins and food colorants. Inhabitation of sulfotransferase may cause negative effects on the patient’s health.
Gumieniczek, A., Berecka, A., Pietras, R., & Sliebioda, M. (2014). Stress degradation study of two oral antidiabetics, gliclazide and glipizide, and chemical analysis by LC and LC/MS methods. Central European Journal of Chemistry, 12(1), 80-89.
Mooranian, A., Negrulj, R., Mathavan, S., Martinez, J., Sciarretta, J., Chen-Tan, N., Mukkur, M., Lalic-Popovic, M., Al-Salami, S. (2014). Stability and release kinetics of an advanced gliclazide-cholic acid formulation: The use of artificial-cell microencapsulation in slow release targeted oral delivery of antidiabetics. Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, 9, 150-157.