Pharmacological Effects of Herbal Supplements in the Management of Diabetes and Nursing Implications
Management of Diabetes Mellitus
- Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder.
- Chronic disorder (Chang et al., 2013).
- Two types of diabetes to manage.
- Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent.
- Type 2 diabetes is noninsulin-dependent diabetes.
- Disease management depends on the type.
Herbal Supplements in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
- About 400 herbs have anti-diabetic properties.
- Controlling glucose (Obiedo & Elizon, 2015).
- Herbal supplements also regulate glucose absorption.
- Some herbs control the ????-cell function.
- Herbs are used in combination therapies.
- Herbal supplements represent an alternative therapy.
Pharmacological Effects of Herbs to Address Insulin Resistance
- Licorice controls glucose metabolism activating PPAR-????.
- Dioscorea decreases the phosphorylation of ERK.
- Reduces insulin resistance (Chang et al., 2013).
- Blueberry’s antioxidants neutralize free radicals.
- Astragalus reduces insulin resistance activating Akt.
- Gastrodia elata potentially decreases fat accumulation.
Pharmacological Effects of Herbs to Control ????-Cell Function
- Pandanus amaryllifolius significantly addresses hyperglycemia.
- Tabernaemontana divaricate improves producing ????-cells.
- Nymphaea stellate contributes to generating ????-cells.
- Silybum marianum improves the ????-cell function.
- Bidenspilosa reduces blood glucose levels.
- Activating ????-cells (Chang et al., 2013).
Pharmacological Effects of Herbs to Control Glucose Absorption
- Some herbs control the ????-glucosidase activity.
- Safflower improves the insulin secretion.
- Safflower also reduces the ????-glucosidase activity.
- Laminaria japonica effectively controls glucose absorption.
- Butyl-isobutyl-phthalate affects the ????-glucosidase activity.
- Addressed absorption (Chang et al., 2013).
Nursing Implications and Conclusion
- Herbal supplements add to anti-diabetic therapies.
- Herbal supplements are comparably safe.
- Effects are in influencing metabolic pathways.
- Prescribed herbs decrease the medication dosage.
- Nurses should focus on drug-and-herb interactions.
- Herbal supplements improve patient outcomes.
Pharmacological Effects of Metformin Medications in the Management of Diabetes and Nursing Implications
Management of Type 2 Diabetes
- Associated with impaired glucose tolerance.
- Disease management requires the pharmacological therapy.
- Lifestyle interventions are required and recommended.
- Combination of pharmacological therapies and interventions.
- Metformin is used to treat diabetes.
- Recommended medication (Rojas & Gomes, 2013).
Using Metformin for Managing Type 2 Diabetes
- Metformin is a first-line medication.
- Commonly used (Napolitano et al., 2014).
- Early usage of Metformin is expected.
- Effects on reducing glucose are significant.
- Monotherapy based on Metformin is possible.
- Combination therapies should include Metformin.
Pharmacological Effects of Metformin Medications
- Positive effects (Rojas & Gomes, 2013).
- Metformin decreases glucose in the liver.
- The upstream kinase is activated.
- LKB-1 is also effectively activated.
- Synthesis of gluconeogenic enzymes is regulated.
- Effects on gut micro-biome changes.
Effects of Metformin as the Part of the Combination Therapy
- Metformin should be combined with insulin.
- Decreases in HbA1c to about 2%.
- Metformin can be combined with sulfonylureas.
- Expected effects regarding HbA1c are lower.
- Oral usage (Napolitano et al., 2014).
- Metformin is safe, improving metabolic processes.
Possible Adverse Effects of Metformin Medications
- Gastrointestinal intolerance (Napolitano et al., 2014).
- Pharmacological effects improve when decreasing doses.
- Doses should generally be adjusted.
- Can be administered with meals.
- Vitamin B12 absorption can become reduced.
- Rare adverse effects include allergic pneumonitis.
Pharmacology and Drug Interactions
- Rare interactions (Rojas & Gomes, 2013).
- Positive outcomes because of rare interactions.
- Interactions are with morphine, amiloride, procainamide.
- Pharmacological effects can be decreased.
- Some interactions cause gastrointestinal side-effects.
- Dosage of Metformin should be regulated.
Nursing Implications and Concluding Remarks
- Positive pharmacological effects are proven.
- Metformin is a pre-diabetes drug.
- Nurses focus on Metformin’s macrovascular outcomes.
- The medication is viewed as safe.
- The low-level toxicity is reported.
- Actively used in anti-diabetic therapies.
Chang, C. L., Lin, Y., Bartolome, A. P., Chen, Y. C., Chiu, S. C., & Yang, W. C. (2013). Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013(1), 1-33.
Napolitano, A., Miller, S., Nicholls, A. W., Baker, D., Van Horn, S., Thomas, E.,… Nunez, D. J. (2014). Novel gut-based pharmacology of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PloS One, 9(7), 1-14.
Obiedo, A., & Elizon, L. (2015). Diabetes mellitus management: Herbal or prescribed medication. CNU Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 162-172.
Rojas, L. B. A., & Gomes, M. B. (2013). Metformin: An old but still the best treatment for type 2 diabetes. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 5(6), 1-15.