|Definition||Atypical pneumonia or SARS is a group of acute infectious diseases of nonspecific etiology, different in origin and mechanism of development, which are characterized by focal lesions of the respiratory sections of the lungs.|
|History||The disease was first noted in November 2002 in the Chinese province of Guangdong. Measures to prevent the spread of this epidemic were not taken immediately, since the PRC government at first concealed the emergence of this disease in the country. However, the epidemic quickly spread to neighboring Hong Kong and Vietnam at the end of February 2003 and onward to other countries and continents. The first officially registered case of SARS was recorded in Hanoi on February 26, 2003.|
|Symptoms||Symptoms of SARS are high fever and dry cough, difficulty or rapid breathing. Fluorographic examination of the chest shows a picture of pneumonia. Other symptoms may also occur – chills, headaches, loss of appetite, malaise and muscle pain, dry skin, and diarrhea. The peculiarity of this disease is the predominance of symptoms of general intoxication, which overshadow pulmonary manifestations.|
|Causes||The causative agent of SARS is a mutant from the second group of coronaviruses. The virus has been found in many organs and secretions of people who died from SARS: lungs, kidneys, sputum, smears from the upper respiratory tract.|
|Virology||The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets and airborne dust. In order for the virus to enter the body, it must be at a distance of no more than 10 cm from its carrier. In addition, the virus can live outside the host for about 3-6 hours, so infection is possible through the patient’s secretions, as well as objects that they used.|
|Prevention||WHO has developed the basic principles of infection prevention: a ban on visiting regions that are unfavorable in relation to this infection and strict anti-epidemic control of persons returning from such regions. Moreover, the use of individual single-use masks in case of need for contact with persons suspected of developing an infection is recommended.|
|Diagnostic Method||Diagnostics includes determination of virus RNA in blood serum and respiratory tract secretions, which occurs using RT-PCR; determination of antibodies to the virus by enzyme immunoassay; complete blood count (excluding ESR and leukocyte formula).|
|Treatment||Treatment of SARS is carried out in specialized intensive care units, using antiviral agents, antibiotics of the latest generations, and glucocorticosteroids. To date, there are no drugs against most viruses that cause pneumonia. The drugs of choice for the treatment of atypical pneumonia are macrolides, which are most active against legionella, mycoplasmas, chlamydia. Some quinolones and tetracyclines are also used.|
|Duration||The duration of the course of taking medications and the dose of application is determined by the attending physician due to the highly individual course of the disease in each patient.|
|Prognosis||The course of such pneumonias is unpredictable: they can be both asymptomatic and severe, with the development of life-threatening complications. The disease is difficult to diagnose in the early stages, as a result of which patients arrive late in the hospital under the supervision of a specialist.|
|Complications||Most often, the consequences of SARS are extremely unfavorable and manifest themselves in the form of the development of serious diseases and conditions. Complications of SARS include exudative pleurisy, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute respiratory failure, septic shock, secondary bacteremia, pericarditis, myocarditis, and nephritis.|
|Frequency in Population||According to WHO, during the epidemic in 30 countries, 8436 cases of SARS were registered.|
|Deaths||The most severe complication of SARS is high mortality, especially in people over 65 years of age. The mortality rate exceeds 10%. More than 900 deaths were registered during the epidemic, the largest number of victims was recorded in mainland China (348 cases) and Hong Kong (298 cases).|
|Society||Due to the fact that the virus spread quickly, resulting in high morbidity and mortality, its existence seriously worried health experts. Various countries joined forces and managed to stop the epidemic. Since 2004, no cases of infection with this disease have been observed.|
📝 SARS Research Papers Examples
- Preventing Infection and Transmission of COVID-19 in the PopulationTo address the problem of rapid transmission of COVID, the US government created public health and safety measures, which have been implemented in many states across the country.
🏆 Best SARS Essay Titles
- Perspective: Reducing SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity and Its Associated Immunopathology
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- Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Evolution
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- Geographic and Genomic Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Mutations
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- The Spatial and Cell-type Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ace2 in the Human and Mouse Brains
- Respiratory Microbial Co-infection With SARS-CoV-2
- SARS-CoV-2 and Ocular Surface: From Physiology to Pathology, a Route To Understand Transmission and Disease
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❓ SARS Research Questions
- What Are Nanotechnology-Based Approaches to SARS-CoV-2 Detection?
- What Is Known About Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome?
- Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2) And Nutrition: Is Infection in Italy Suggesting a Connection?
- What Are the Risk Groups and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2?
- What Are the General Recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 Control?
- Could BCG Vaccination Induce Protective Trained Immunity for SARS-CoV-2?
- What Are the Advances in SARS-CoV-2 Diagnosis and Treatment?
- What Are the Potential Intermediate Hosts of SARS-CoV-2?
- What Is the Impact on Sia During SARS-CoV-2?
- BCG Against SARS-CoV-2: Second Youth of an Old Age Vaccine?
- What Are the Neuromuscular Complications in SARS-CoV-2 Infection?
- Can Natural Killer Cells Be a Principal Player in Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunity?
- What Are the Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 Molecular Network?
- How to Survive the SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic?
- What Is the Possible Dual Role of the ACE2 Receptor in Asthma and Coronavirus Infection (SARS-CoV-2)?
- What Is the Genetic Spectrum and Various Patterns of Evolution of SARS-CoV-2?
- What Natural Products Can Inhibit SARS-CoV-2?
- Is There a Role for Lipid Droplets in SARS-CoV-2 Infection?
- How Is Canada Fighting SARS-CoV-2?
- Will SARS-CoV-2 Infection Elicit Long-lasting Protective or Sterilising Immunity?
- Why Is ACE2 So Much More Than Just a Receptor for SARS-CoV-2?
- Does the Lectin Complement Pathway Link Kawasaki Disease and SARS-CoV-2?
- Which Are the Main Surface Disinfection Approaches at the Time of SARS-CoV-2?
- Antivirals Against Coronaviruses: Candidate Drugs for SARS-CoV-2 Treatment?
- What Causes SARS-CoV-2?