|Definition||Pneumonia is an acute infectious inflammatory disease of the lungs, in which all structural elements of the lung tissue are involved in the process.|
|History||Until the beginning of the 19th century, no definite anatomical and clinical concept was associated with the term “pneumonia.” The Italian physician and anatomist G. B. Morgagni (1682-1771) pointed out the connection between the clinical manifestations of the disease and pathoanatomical changes in the organs. In 1761, the Austrian physician J.L. Auenbrugger proposed a method of auscultation of the lungs. R. Laennec (1781 – 1826) delimited pneumonia from pleurisy and pointed out the relationship between these phenomena and the known pathological data.|
|Symptoms||The clinical picture of pneumonia largely depends on the extent of the lesion. Manifestations of pneumonia are divided into pulmonary and extrapulmonary. Pulmonary manifestations include cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath. To extrapulmonary symptoms belong fever, intoxication syndrome, and laboratory inflammation syndrome.|
|Causes||Acute pneumonia is caused by various infectious agents. Approximately 90% of cases are bacteria, the remaining 10% are viruses, fungi, protozoa and helminths (roundworms, toxoplasma, schistosomes). The most common pathogens include pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza viruses, and respiratory syncytial infection.|
|Virology||The pathogen most often enters the lungs by inhalation, and can also penetrate through the blood or lymph from other foci of infection in the body. In addition, microbes can be introduced into the lungs with food particles and vomit that accidentally enters the respiratory tract.|
|Prevention||There is no universal vaccine against pneumonia. However, there are vaccines that act against certain microorganisms: against pneumococcus, some types of streptococcus, measles, and whooping cough (in childhood). Considering that pneumonia often occurs as a complication after influenza, annual influenza vaccinations are recommended.|
|Diagnostic Method||The diagnostic to confirm pneumonia should include a clinical blood test, a urinalysis, a chest x-ray in two projections. Additionally, a specialist consultation is required, during which a general examination, chest palpation, percussion, and auscultation of the lungs are performed.|
|Treatment||Most patients with community-acquired pneumonia can be treated at home, however, in each case, the appointment of antibiotics or antiviral drugs is determined by the etiological factor, history, examination data and the results of examination. In some cases, patients require treatment in a hospital setting. Indications for hospitalization are extensive damage to the lung tissue, an increase in the phenomena of respiratory failure, and age over 60 years.|
|Duration||The duration of pneumonia is usually 1-2 weeks, but some cases extend for several months.|
|Prognosis||Pneumonia is not considered a dangerous disease for humans, but it is necessary to receive medical attention in a timely manner in order to avoid the development of possible complications.|
|Complications||The disease can lead to complications such as pleurisy, pulmonary edema or abscess, acute cardiopulmonary failure, myocarditis, endocarditis, meningoencephalitis, meningitis, sepsis, and infectious-toxic shock.|
|Frequency in Population||Approximately 150 million new cases of pneumonia occur annually among children younger than 5 years worldwide.|
|Deaths||2.56 million people died from pneumonia in 2017. Almost a third of all victims were children younger than 5 years, it is the leading cause of death for children under 5.|
|Society||Pneumonia is considered globally to be a major risk of death among children under age of 5, which causes the society to treat it quite seriously.|
📝 Pneumonia Research Papers Examples
- The Diagnosis of Pneumonia in AdultsA radiological test that should be performed is a chest x-ray with posteroanterior and lateral views. This mode is the one in the assessment of typical bacterial pneumonia.
- Acute Bronchitis and PneumoniaAcute bronchitis and pneumonia are diseases of the respiratory system. The diseases share many symptoms, and some persons with acute bronchitis often contract pneumonia.
- Pneumonia Diagnostics and Pharmacological TreatmentPneumonia is a highly prevalent disease that can be caused by different pathogens. This work analyzes a 58-year-old patient's case and selects treatment.
- Patients with Pneumonia: Assessment and TreatmentPneumonia occurs more often in the right side lungs due to the anatomical structure of the bronchial tree and it may define the cause of the patient's right-sided chest pain.
- Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Elderly PatientA 69-year-old female’s past medical history includes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension. The paper provides a list of differential diagnoses for the patient.
🏆 Best Pneumonia Essay Titles
- Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Children
- Pneumonia: Immune System and Tiny Air Sacs
- Pneumonia and Timely Antibiotic Therapy
- Nutritional Support and Clinical Outcome of Severe and Critical Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia
- Heart Murmurs and Pneumonia
- Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Treatment With Traditional Chinese Medicine
- Polymyositis: Pneumonia and Exact Cause
- Preventing Urinary Tract Infections, Pneumonia, Decubitus Ulcers
- Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit
- Interstitial Pneumonia With Autoimmune Features
- Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia Caused by Clomipramine
- Concurrent Immune Suppression and Hyperinflammation in Patients With Community-acquired Pneumonia
- Neonatal Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
- Boop Consolidation Causes Pneumonia
- Management and Treatment and Psychosocial Aspects of Pneumonia Biology
- Organizing Pneumonia Associated With Anticonvulsant
- Pneumococcal Vaccines Protect Against Some Cases of Pneumonia
- Pneumonia: Aetiology and Pathophysiology
- Acute Respiratory Failure Caused by Aspiration Pneumonia
- Causes, Effects, and Prevention of Pneumonia
- Pneumonia and Its Connection With the Reuse of Suction Catheters in Children
- Initiatives to Improve the Quality of Vaccination Against Pneumonia
- Invasive Pneumonia, Vaccines, and Australian Aborigines
- Chronic Health Problems Like Asthma, Pneumonia, or Anemia
- The Classification, Causes, and Treatment of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia
- Correlation Between Radiological and Pathological Findings in Patients With Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia
- CD4 T-cell-Independent Secondary Immune Responses to Pneumocystis Pneumonia
- Diagnostic Tests for Agents of Community-Acquired Pneumonia
- Pneumonia: Clinical Causes, Signs, and Treatment
- Experts Urge Pneumonia Shots for Elderly
- Clinical Features Predicting Mortality Risk in Patients With Viral Pneumonia
- Chest Computed Tomography and Lung Ultrasound Findings in COVID-19 Pneumonia
- Stroke Severity Versus Dysphagia Screen as Driver for Post-stroke Pneumonia
- The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia With Multiple Thromboembolism
- Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus Aureus Causing Childhood Pneumonia in Shanghai
- Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Protocols
- Frederick Griffith Formulating New Vaccine for Pneumonia Begins Testing in Mice
- Respiratory Disease and Pneumonia Bacteria
- Drug Prevention and Control of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia
- Pneumonia: Nicotine and Respiratory Health
❓ Pneumonia Research Questions
- What Are Interesting Facts About Walking Pneumonia?
- What Are the Key Recommendations for the Prevention of Pneumonia?
- What Causes Pneumonia?
- Are Patients With Autoimmune Cytopenias at Higher Risk of COVID-19 Pneumonia?
- What Types of Pneumonia Are There?
- What Do Parents Need To Know About Childhood Pneumonia?
- What Are the Symptoms of Acute Pneumonia?
- What Is Concomitant Immunosuppression and Hyperinflammation in Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia?
- What Are the Main Symptoms of Pneumonia?
- Improving the Diagnosis, Management, and Outcomes of Children With Pneumonia: Where Are the Gaps?
- What Features Differentiate COVID-19 From Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients?
- How Is Immunomodulation Carried Out in Severe Pneumonia?
- What Is the Main Route of Transmission of Pneumonia?
- Are Invasive Pneumonia Vaccines Effective in Aboriginal Australians?
- What Is Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia?
- What Are the Interventions for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia?
- How Does Influenza Pneumonia Manifest Itself, Why Does It Occur, and How To Fight It?
- How Is Coronavirus Pneumonia Different From Normal Pneumonia?
- Viral-reactivated Pneumonia on a Ventilator: Is Antiviral Treatment Needed?
- What Are the Differences and Similarities Between Pneumonia and Tuberculosis?
- What Is the Mechanism of Coughing in Pneumonia?
- Who Should Receive the Pneumonia Vaccine?
- What Is the Association Between Colchicine Use and Pneumonia?
- How Do Lung Dendritic Cells Contribute to Extrapulmonary Bacterial Dissemination in Pneumococcal Pneumonia?
- Who Can Become Ill With Pneumonia?