|Definition||Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the genital tract. HPV is a group of viruses that is extremely widespread throughout the world. There are over 190 types of this virus, of which at least 13 lead to cancer (these are known as high-risk types).|
|History||In the mid-seventies of the twentieth century, the scientist Harold zur Hausen discovered that women with cervical cancer were invariably infected with the human papillomavirus. In 1983, he discovered papillomavirus DNA in a cervical cancer biopsy, and this event can be considered the discovery of the oncogenic HPV-16 virus. In 2008, the Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Harold zur Hausen for his discovery that papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer.|
|Symptoms||Most HPV infections do not cause symptoms or illness and resolve on their own – about 90% resolve within 2 years. However, persistent infection with certain types of HPV (most commonly types 16 and 18) can lead to the development of precancerous pathological conditions. HPV-6 and HPV-11 can also cause a rare condition known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), in which warts form in the larynx or other parts of the airways.|
|Causes||The main cause of the disease is the group of Papillomaviruses.|
|Prevention||Main prevention method of papillomavirus is vaccination against it. The results of clinical trials indicate that the two vaccines currently available are safe and very effective in preventing HPV 16 and 18 infections. Both vaccines are more effective if vaccinated before exposure to the human papillomavirus. Therefore, it is preferable to vaccinate before the first sexual contact.|
|Diagnostic Method||There are several methods of laboratory and instrumental diagnosis of human papillomavirus. Colposcopic examination is prescribed for women to detect genital warts located in the cervical region. Cytological study allows to notice mutated cells that indicate a viral infection. PCR diagnostics is one of the most reliable diagnostic methods that is used to detect many bacteria and viruses. Using PCR diagnostics, it is possible to detect the DNA of the virus even if the amount of the pathogen in the blood is extremely small and it does not manifest itself in any way.|
|Treatment||There is no specific treatment for human papillomavirus. However, screening for cervical cancer is recommended for revealing possible precancerous conditions and cancer in women who are asymptomatic and feel perfectly healthy. If screening detects precancerous pathological conditions, they can be easily treated and thereby prevent the development of cancer.|
|Duration||Usually, the infection disappears without any treatment within a few months, and the complete “withdrawal” of it from the body occurs within 2 years. However, a reinfection is possible.|
|Prognosis||While human papillomavirus is not dangerous on itself, it has high probability of causing cancer later. HPV types that do not cause cancer (especially types 6 and 11) can cause genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis – a disease in which tumors grow in the airways leading from the nose and mouth to the lungs. Although these conditions very rarely lead to death, they can often lead to illness. Genital warts are widespread and highly infectious.|
|Complications||It has been established that cervical cancer in 100% of cases is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV). In women with a normal immune system, cervical cancer develops in 15-20 years. In women with a weakened immune system, such as those with untreated HIV infection, it may take only 5-10 years to develop. Despite limited data on anogenital cancers other than cervical cancer, a growing body of evidence links human papillomavirus to cancers of the anus, vulva, vagina, and penis.|
|Frequency in Population||Almost 70% of the world population are carriers of the human papillomavirus without clinical manifestations of the disease. Re-infection during life is also possible.|
|Deaths||Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women globally, with an estimated 570,000 new cases in 2018 and 7.5% of all cancer deaths in women. It is estimated that more than 85% of the more than 311,000 cervical cancer deaths each year occur in low- and middle-income countries.|
|Society||Seeing as in the last decade society has become increasingly more aware of the issue of HPV, vaccination and screening measures are widely promoted in the most countries.|
📝 Human Papillomavirus Research Papers Examples
- Human Papillomavirus Infection and TreatmentHuman papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States that could lead to various complications.
🏆 Best Human Papillomavirus Essay Titles
- Human Papillomavirus: Carcinogenic and Curable
- Approximately 60 People in Israel Are Diagnosed With Rectal Cancer Each Year Due to HPV
- Mucosal and Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus Infections and Cancer Biology
- The Human Papillomavirus and How To Prevent Its Spread
- Public Health Concerns With the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
- Approximately 100 People in Israel Are Diagnosed With Oral and Laryngeal Cancer Each Year Due to HPV
- The Debate Over the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
- Genital Human Papillomavirus Transmission Infection Biology
- Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer Burden
- Human Papillomavirus Virus Double-Stranded Dna Transmitted Sexually
- Policy Agenda Human Papillomavirus
- History: Human Papillomavirus and New HPV Vaccines
- Personalized Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Persistence of Immunity for Cervical Cancer Prevention
- Human Papillomavirus and Its Effects on Female Health
- Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Perception of Future Registered Nurses
- Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infections Among Chinese Women With and Without Cervical Abnormalities
- Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapeutics Based on Human Papillomavirus for HPV-induced Cancers
- Global Human Papillomavirus Infections Clinical Trials Review
- Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Neoplasia Among Migrant Women Living in Italy
- Persistent Low-risk and High-risk Human Papillomavirus Infections of the Uterine Cervix in HIV-negative and HIV-positive Women
- Human Papillomavirus Genotype Prevalence in Invasive Penile Cancers From a Registry-based United States Population
- The Human Papillomavirus: The Nation’s Vaccine Preventable Epidemic
- Awareness of Human Papillomavirus and Factors Associated With Intention to Obtain HPV Vaccination Among Korean Youth
- Epidemiology and Burden of Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases, Molecular Pathogenesis, and Vaccine Evaluation
- Differences Between a Precancerous Cervical Cell and Human Papillomavirus
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV), HPV-Related Disease, and the HPV Vaccine
- The Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Overcoming Barriers to Acceptance of a Medical Triumph
- Prevalence, Incidence, and Natural History of HPV Infection
- Detection of Human Papillomaviruses in Paired Healthy Skin and Actinic Keratosis by Next Generation Sequencing
- High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in the Northern Region of Portugal
- Diversity of Human Papillomavirus Typing Among Women Population
- Human Papillomavirus – Policies and Strategies to Address HPV Infection
- Policy Recommendations Related to Human Papillomavirus
- The Causal Link Between Human Papillomavirus and Invasive Cervical Cancer
- Human Papillomavirus: Epidemiology and Public Health
- Human Papillomavirus: Confronting the Epidemic in Urologist’s Perspective
- Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Delivery Strategies That Achieved High Coverage in Low-and Middle-Income Countries
- Knowledge and Awareness About Human Papillomavirus Infection and Its Vaccination
- Public Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Receipt of Vaccination Recommendations
- The Human Papillomavirus Replication Cycle, and Its Links to Cancer Progression
❓ Human Papillomavirus Research Questions
- How Are Cardiovascular Diseases Related to the Human Papillomavirus?
- What Is the Peak Infection Period for Both Women and Men?
- When Should One Not Get Vaccinated Against Human Papillomavirus?
- What Effect Does Tobacco Have On HPV?
- What Are the Main Routes of Infection for HPV?
- When Was the First Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Developed?
- Why Do So Many People Know Nothing About HPV Even in the 21st Century?
- Do Men Know That They Need the HPV Vaccine Just as Much as Women Do?
- Why Are HPV Vaccines as Safe as Possible?
- What Important Facts About HPV Should Everyone Know?
- What Are the Risk Factors for HPV Persistence and Cervical Cancer?
- Should the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Be Mandatory for Early?
- How Does the Human Papilloma Virus Affect Society?
- What Are the Side Effects of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination?
- What Are Young Women’s Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus?
- Can I Kiss With the Human Papillomavirus?
- Why Is HPV Vaccination Not Mandatory?
- Do I Need To Tell My Partner That I Have HPV?
- How Does HPV Infection Lead To Cervical Cancer?
- How Effective Are HPV Vaccines?
- How To Decipher an HPV Smear Analysis?
- What Is the Truth About Human Papilloma Virus?
- What Drugs Kill Human Papillomavirus?
- Why Is There So Much Controversy About the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine?
- Is It Safe to Continue Dating With HPV?
- HPV Blood Test vs. PAP Smear: Which Is Best?