The clinical question that will be employed in the project is: “What is the influence of education and vaccination on the rate of HPV infection for adolescents and young adult patients that visit health facilities?” This project will seek to assess the impact of improved awareness and vaccination to adolescents and young adults on the rate of human papillomavirus [HPV] infection. A quasi-experimental study will be carried out to assist in the assessment of the causal effect of the intervention [improved awareness and vaccination] on adolescent and young adult patients visiting the Metropolitan hospital center [MHC] in New York. A qualitative method of data analysis will be employed in the project. Since valid and reliable tools are available, the researcher will not require developing own evaluation tools. The researcher will gather baseline data as it will act as a source of comparison with the data to be acquired later on (Schmidt & Parsons, 2014). In this project, pretest, posttest, and follow-up group design with the application of sample and comparison groups will be executed in the evaluation of the success of the intervention in changing the behavior of the participants.
The intervention groups will be exposed to education and vaccination against HPV infection. Two months following the application of the educational and vaccination program, a similar questionnaire with the exclusion of the demographic inquiries will be administered both to the control and intervention groups. The final analysis will be carried out through the comparison of the two groups to examine the effectiveness of the intervention in ensuring a change in the behavior of the participants. Though the control group will not undertake any intervention in the project, because of ethical deliberations, the materials will be offered to them after completion of the study. The identification of the participants will be through seeking interested adolescent and young adult patients at the facility. Convenience sampling will be done; it reveals the type of study to be undertaken because a quasi-experimental study does not employ random sampling. The confidentiality of the participants will be ensured by informing them not to indicate their names on the questionnaire and treatment of all the collected information with the greatest anonymity possible (Kaiser, 2009).
Something obliging regarding a quasi-experimental study as will be executed for the project is that, for a group [such as patients], it is easier to carry out when compared to other methods of study. The researcher will perform a quasi-experimental study to determine whether education and immunization results in a reduction in HPV infection thus establishing the cause and effect. This way, performing the study on adolescent and young adult patients in Metropolitan Hospital Center will present generalizable results in the population. Additionally, the study will bring about a study that may be followed up in varied settings.
The setting for this study will be the Metropolitan hospital center, a component of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC), the biggest public medical establishment in the United States. For eligibility in the study, the participants will have to be patients of the age of 14 to 28 years, single, residing within New York City, and ready to participate in the study. Convenience sampling will be employed where subjects will be chosen based on their well-located accessibility and closeness to the setting of the study.
To protect the confidentiality of the participants, the researcher will emphasize the application of codes on the completed questionnaires instead of names (Kaiser, 2009). After obtaining the completed questionnaires, the researcher will remove any paper with identifiers or white out the information from any participant that will have incorrectly indicated identifying details [such as address or name].
Announcements for the performance of the study will be posted throughout the hospital and in the surrounding community. The researcher, with the help of educators and other professionals, will carry out an educational intervention for the purpose of raising the awareness of the participants regarding HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination. Counselors will also be available throughout the study. The educators and professionals in the field of HPV infection will lead focus groups. After the educational intervention, the willing participants will receive interview questions containing The Sexual Abstinence Scale. After two months, a follow-up survey will be carried out.
Besides the use of tape recorder, interview questions will be issued to the participants and will contain The Sexual Abstinence Scale, a self-reported five-point Likert-type scale that will seek to measure behavioral intentions of the participants and their attitudes towards sexual abstinence. The above qualitative instruments alongside the rate of HPV infection and immunization amid the participants will measure behavioral changes of the participants (Bosch et al., 2013).
Prior to the intervention, the researcher will gather baseline data by asking the participants about their sexual conduct and their earlier tests for HPV infection. Quasi-experimental pre- and posttests will be carried out to examine the change in the behavior of the participants regarding the prevention of HPV infection. Both close-ended and open-ended interview questions will be presented to the interviewees. The questionnaire will contain questions distributed across the dependent, independent, and demographic variables (See Appendix). The participants will also be informed of the application of a tape recorder in the study for the purpose of enhancing the accuracy of information and providing a permanent record. After the collection of data, information in the tape recorder will be transcribed to offer a reliable source for affirmation and reference. After two months, the participants will be invited for a follow-up survey.
Bosch, F. X., Broker, T. R., Forman, D., Moscicki, A. B., Gillison, M. L., Doorbar, J., & Cuzick, J. (2013). Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases. Vaccine, 31(1), 1-31.
Kaiser, K. (2009). Protecting respondent confidentiality in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 19(11), 1632-1641.
Schmidt, S., & Parsons, H. M. (2014). Vaccination interest and trends in human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women aged 18 to 26 years in the United States: An analysis using the 2008–2012 National Health Interview Survey. American journal of public health, 104(5), 946-953.
- Occupation/level of study:
- Occupation of the parent:
- How many sexual partners have you had altogether, and of which gender? :
- Have you ever had sexual intercourse? If yes, what was the age of your first intercourse?
- Kindly mark where appropriate in the question below
|Never||Rarely||A few times||Most of the time||Every time|
|What is your usage of condom during sexual intercourse?|
- Discuss the benefits of education on HPV infection
- Explain the benefits of vaccination against HPV infection
- Explain the manner in which behavior influences HPV infection
- Discuss the measures you choose to take to prevent [or if already infected, treat] HPV infection
- The Sexual Abstinence Scale
|Completely confident||Much confidence||Some confidence||Little confidence||No confidence|
|How confident are you that you will abstain from sex until married?|