Epidemiology: Hepatitis B, Influenza, Syphilis in Miami

Introduction

Communicable diseases are an urgent health problem since a large number of people are susceptible to these ailments, and until now, no means have been found to combat these illnesses comprehensively. In the case of Miami, Florida (FL 33563), three diseases of this type will be considered, which are the subject of the work of local medical communities. Based on the information obtained from competent sources, it is possible to determine the impact that these diseases have on the population of Miami and also identify an action plan aimed at preventing infections. The use of up-to-date information on the possible consequences of infections allows objectively assessing the nature of threats and take timely measures to prevent epidemics.

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Communicable Diseases

Communicable diseases are numerous, and their influence is significant and fatal in some cases. In order to assess the potential threat of such ailments in Miami, three illnesses can be taken as a basis – hepatitis B, influenza, and syphilis, and all these diseases are relevant to the community in question. To determine their impact on the population, information from academic peer-reviewed sources will be taken, as well as data from the official medical website. Based on the findings, the degree of threat of these three illnesses will be determined. Also, a possible action plan aimed at preventing epidemics will be drawn up to find appropriate measures of combating infections.

Hepatitis B Influence and Prevention

Hepatitis B is a dangerous disease that threatens not only the carrier of the virus but also other people. According to Terrault et al. (2016), for the period from 1999 to 2008, in the US, it was registered in “approximately 704,000 adults” with chronic hepatitis syndrome (p. 262). Despite the fact that this virus is not transmitted by airborne droplets, the risk of sexual transmission or through the blood is extremely high. This disease is relevant for the medical community of Miami since a large number of young people live in the region. Accordingly, the search for solutions to prevent the illness is an essential task.

One of the possible ways of preventing hepatitis B is timely vaccination. According to ODPHP (2018a), the need for virus identification is relevant for all people, and specific attention is to be given to pregnant women who can transmit the infection to a fetus in the womb. It is necessary to check that the population takes part in the protection program and has access to a free vaccination. In this case, the risk of spreading the disease can be minimized.

Influenza Effect and Prevention

Influenza is one of the most common communicable diseases is a dangerous illness, and its discussion in the context of the community in question is relevant. As Rowell et al. (2018) remark, for the period from 2015 to 2018, about 12,000 deaths due to seasonal influenza were recorded in the United States (p. 1008). Such statistics are alarming, and in Miami where the population density is high enough the risk of infection increases significantly.

An additional danger lies in the fact that influenza viruses can adapt to those drugs that are made to fight the disease. According to ODPHP (2018c), the immune system of the population suffers heavily under the influence of the ailment, which explains the need to develop appropriate interventions. Therefore, the development and implementation of “antiviral-resistant strains” for the successful fight against influenza is the important task of the community’s medical specialists (ODPHP, 2018c, para. 1). This measure may allow excluding viruses mutations and preventing the spread of the disease among the population.

Syphilis Influence and Prevention

Syphilis belongs to the category of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and is a dangerous ailment in terms of its consequences. According to Escamilla et al. (2016), this illness is always correlated with certain living determinants – the level of income of the population, the ratio of sexes, and other factors. Despite the fact that the Miami community is in a safe place, this problem is relevant since not all residents are aware of the threat that syphilis poses.

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According to official statistics, the prevailing number of patients with STD and, in particular, syphilis are young people from 15 to 24 (ODPHP, 2018b, para. 5). In the US, the cost of treating such communicable ailments is “as much as $ 16 billion annually” (ODPHP, 2018b, para. 5). At the same time, not only financial but also ethical issues are affected since the sexual transmission of various viruses is possible. In order to deal with the problem, it is essential to disseminate information about the need for adequate protection among the members of the community and to call for periodic testing. These measures will certainly contribute to reducing the incidence rate and increase literacy among citizens.

Conclusion

The evaluation of current information obtained from competent sources makes it possible to determine the impact of the described contagious diseases on a particular community and to take appropriate measures. Hepatitis B, influenza, and syphilis are dangerous ailments, and the effects of infections can be dangerous if a corrective action plan for their prevention is not compiled. The data obtained in the course of the research may allow identifying the key areas of intervention that deserve attention. Ignoring problems can be fraught with epidemics and massive infections, which is unacceptable in the conditions of modern developed society and the advanced level of medicine.

References

Escamilla, V., Hampton, K. H., Gesink, D. C., Serre, M. L., Emch, M., Leone, P. A.,… Miller, W. C. (2016). Influence of detection method and study area scale on syphilis cluster identification in North Carolina. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 43(4), 216-221. Web.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (2018a). Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program. Web.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (2018b). Sexually transmitted diseases. Web.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (2018c). State public health laboratories performing antiviral resistance testing. Web.

Rowell, J., Lo, C. Y., Price, G. E., Misplon, J. A., Epstein, S. L., & Garcia, M. (2018). Conventional influenza vaccines influence the performance of a universal influenza vaccine in mice. Vaccine, 36(7), 1008-1015. Web.

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Terrault, N. A., Bzowej, N. H., Chang, K. M., Hwang, J. P., Jonas, M. M., & Murad, M. H. (2016). AASLD guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology, 63(1), 261-283. Web.

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