HIV: Creating a Plan of Care


The issue of the spread of HIV is an acute problem that is regularly discussed not only in separate regions but also at the global level. The need to develop appropriate interventions to help patients suffering from this ailment is caused by a large number of concomitant diseases. According to the Healthy People 2020 program, the goal of work in this direction is to “prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and related illnesses and death,” which may be achieved by drawing up a specific care plan (ODPHP, 2018, para. 1). As actual measures for compiling the scheme work, nursing diagnoses should be considered, the information collected is to be evaluated, the desired outcomes may be considered, evaluation criteria can be cited, and possible interventions need discussing. These steps may be valuable in making an appropriate plan and helping those people who have HIV. Therefore, the development of a specific program of patient care is a relevant task in modern conditions.

Nursing Diagnoses

One of the most frequent nursing diagnoses that occur in patients with HIV is intolerance to adequate physical activities. People with the immunodeficiency virus are unable to exercise and experience extreme fatigue. Another nursing diagnosis that is observed in patients with HIV is the problem of feeding self-care deficit, which is expressed in an inability to cook nutritious food and swallow it because of discomfort in the oral cavity. The issue of insomnia is another frequent factor that helps junior medical personnel in diagnosing HIV. Patients have trouble sleeping; they often wake up and cannot relax. These factors are signals for consulting medical specialists, and they should not be neglected.

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Assessment Data (Objective and Subjective)

Based on the findings, it is essential to note that HIV affects different categories of the population. In particular, young people of reproductive age suffer from this ailment more often than others, which, in turn, influences the birth rates negatively. Also, those diagnosed with the illness are prone to depression and suicidal thoughts. When talking about personal problems, HIV patients often face discrimination. According to Katz et al. (2013), psychological help and social support are necessary for these people since they cannot overcome their fears on their own. In general, the problem is significant, and as practice shows, the disease can occur in any patient, which is a particularly frightening prospect.

Interview Results

According to the interview, the patient was diagnosed with HIV after voluntary blood donation. Despite accompanying symptoms in the form of chronic fatigue, headaches, and fever, the young woman did not know about the illness and did not expect such a diagnosis to be made. Despite her serious problem, she is successful in coping with the disease and tries to adapt to her new conditions of life. As Schaecher (2013) remarks, if patients adhere to the treatment regime, it has more positive results compared with those cases when therapy is not observed. Therefore, based on the interview, the respondent has a good opportunity to fight the virus and to avoid dangerous consequences.

Desired Outcomes

The care plan should ensure such a mode of work that assistance to all the categories of the population could be guaranteed. Special support is to be provided to the members of low-income families with HIV, and a corresponding assistance program may be created following the state policy (Florida Department of Health, 2016). Complex and anonymous participation will be guaranteed to those who wish to undergo treatment. These measures will provide an opportunity to keep a medical secret and, at the same time, may help to relax patients. Also, it is assumed that people who suffer from drug addiction and have a confirmed immunodeficiency syndrome will receive qualified care, which is ensured by the State of Florida (FDHMDC, 2018). Based on the current results of the work done, the percentage of patients with HIV should decrease so that the effectiveness of the proposed plan could be proved.

Evaluation Criteria

As criteria for assessing the success of the implementation of the care plan, the rate of patients with the critical stage of HIV will be analyzed, as well as the condition of patients before and after participation in the support program. Based on these data, it will be possible to conclude the possibility of attracting additional resources, for instance, volunteers’ help in searching for people with this diagnosis. The outcomes of patients are the main criterion determining the productivity of the work performed. To achieve the validity of the plan and its convenience for active intervention, testing on the target group of patients may be carried out. In case the results are positive, the practice of working in this direction can become common.

Actions and Interventions

As an intervention to address the dangerous consequences of HIV and AIDS, its late stage, the involvement of participants in the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) is possible. Its goal “is to ensure that persons with HIV/AIDS who are uninsured or who do not have adequate prescription coverage can have access to life-saving medications” (FDHMDC, 2018, para. 1). For this purpose, on the official website, the detailed scheme of actions is presented to which the patient should resort to contact specialists and receive assistance (“ADAP enrollment,” 2018). In addition, it is possible to disseminate information regarding the work of the program among the target audience. Interventions involve assessing the health status of participants, conducting all necessary tests, and drawing up a treatment plan. Patients receive all the crucial information and are aware of the consequences of neglecting medical specialists’ prescriptions.

Evaluation of Patient Outcomes

The evaluation of patient outcomes will be performed following their health indicators before and after the participation in the care program. Because the intended care plan should be holistic, different information should be taken into account – people’s well-being, their indicators of physical activity, morale, and other essential criteria. In case patients confirm the benefit of care, and the results of treatment are positive, the practice of involving patients with HIV can be ubiquitous, and experience may be adopted by different clinics and medical centers.

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Conclusion

The development of an appropriate program to help patients suffering from HIV through the development of a particular care plan may help to achieve positive changes in the statistical picture. Supporting low-income families and attracting people with drug addiction are the key areas of work. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the plan will be based on different criteria, including patient outcomes. If the intervention is successful, the practice can become global and be implemented in different medical institutions.

References

ADAP enrolment. (2018). Web.

Florida Department of Health. (2016). Florida State HOPWA program: Policies and procedures. Web.

Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County (FDHMDC). (2018). AIDS Drug Assistance Program. Web.

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (2018). HIV. Web.

Katz, I. T., Ryu, A. E., Onuegbu, A. G., Psaros, C., Weiser, S. D., Bangsberg, D. R., & Tsai, A. C. (2013). Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: Systematic review and meta-synthesis. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(3S2), 18640. Web.

Schaecher, K. L. (2013). The importance of treatment adherence in HIV. The American Journal of Managed Care, 19(12), S231-S237.

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