Uganda in 2016: Epidemiological Data Evaluation

Chamberlain College of Nursing NR553 Global Health

Visit the World Health Organization website listed in the Webliography of this course. Using the link to “countries”, choose a country to evaluate health data. Answer the following questions and provide insight into the health of the chosen country, using the table below as the format.
Name of Country Uganda
Total Population 41,000,000
Gross national income per capita 1 PPP international $, 2013
Life expectancy at birth 60/64
Probability of dying under five (per 1000 live births) 69 (WHO, 2018).
Most recent adult mortality rate and year 10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2017)
Discuss morbidity – disease prevalence and incidence. Statistics indicate that the leading causes of deaths among children in Uganda in 2016 were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, lower respiratory infections, diarrheal disease, and neonatal encephalopathy (Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation [IHME], 2018). The adult HIV prevalence rate is 7.2% (United Nation’s Children Fund [UNICEF], 2018a). About 1,500,000 are living with HIV/AIDS out of which 780,000 are women and 190,000 are children (UNICEF, 2018a). Knowledge levels regarding HIV prevention are estimated at 38% for people aged between 15 and 24 years, whereas condom use with multiple partners in this age group is estimated at 47.3% (UNICEF, 2018a). In 2014, surveillance data collected by the Ministry of Health in Uganda approximated TB prevalence at 159 for every 100,000 people, whereas the incidence rate was estimated at 161 for every 100,000 people (Ministry of Health, 2017).

On the other hand, TB-related mortality was estimated at 12 deaths per 100,000 people (Ministry of Health, 2017). In the same report, co-infection of HIV and tuberculosis was recorded as 45% compared to the HIV prevalence of 7.3% in the entire population (Ministry of Health, 2017). Statistics show that Uganda has the highest malaria incidences in the world with a rate of 478 instances for every 1,000 people annually (Sundararajan et al., 2015; Uganda Bureau of Statistics [UBOS], 2018). The country ranks 6th among African nations with high malaria-related mortality rates. It is also reported that about 50% of malaria-related deaths in Uganda occur in children below five years (Wanzira et al., 2017).

Discuss risk factors for morbidity and mortality based on the data evaluated. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Uganda (INHE, 2018). The INHE (2018) reports that the factors responsible for morbidity and mortality (in order of decreasing importance) include malnutrition, unsafe sex, air pollution, WaSH (water, sanitation, and hygiene), alcohol and drug abuse, hypertension, dietary risks, high fasting plasma glucose, tobacco, occupational hazards, and sexual violence. Communicable diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis and infectious disorders such as malaria contribute to high rates of morbidities and mortalities in the country (Cox et al., 2016).

Nutritional disorders such as anemia are also prevalent in Uganda (Yeka et al., 2015). Studies show that malaria is the main cause of anemia in Uganda (Baingana, Enyaru, Tjalsma, Swinkels, & Davidsson, 2015; Menon & Yoon, 2015; Nalwoga et al., 2018).

Describe possible challenges to acquiring complete or accurate mortality and morbidity data for this country. Obtaining complete mortality and morbidity information for this country is challenging because the data are scattered. Different organizations report different mortality and morbidity data based on the core values of the organization. For example, UNICEF provides morbidity and mortality data with emphasis on children since the main goal of UNICEF is to safeguard children’s rights (UNICEF, 2018b). Obtaining accurate morbidity and mortality data is challenging because most official websites that provide reliable information take time to update these data. As a result, finding up-to-date data is quite challenging.
List five other reliable sources of health information for this country other than the World Health Organization. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).
The Ministry of Health, Uganda.
United Nation’s Children Fund (UNICEF).
Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS).
Scientific publications on health research conducted in the country.
The second source of health information (Uganda’s Ministry of Health) is scholarly and reliable because it is an official government organization. Additionally, facts reported by the state’s ministry of health are backed by adequate evidence from peer-reviewed scientific research in the country as well as recommendations from other reputable international bodies.
Based on the data you reviewed discuss potential assistance this country might need to improve health. There is a need to create public awareness about healthy diets and nutritional habits to enhance the nutritional status of Ugandans because malnutrition ranks highly among the combined causes of morbidity and mortality. Most cases of malnutrition are usually linked to low socioeconomic standing (Goyal & Agarwal, 2015; Wu, Yang, Yin, Zhu, & Gao, 2015; Isingoma, Samuel, Edward, & Maina, 2017). Therefore, nutritional aid may be required to boost the health of Ugandans.
List References in APA 6thedition format Baingana, R. K., Enyaru, J. K., Tjalsma, H., Swinkels, D. W., & Davidsson, L. (2015). The aetiology of anaemia during pregnancy: A study to evaluate the contribution of iron deficiency and common infections in pregnant Ugandan women. Public Health Nutrition, 18(8), 1423-1435.

Cox, J. A., Kiggundu, D., Elpert, L., Meintjes, G., Colebunders, R., & Alamo, S. (2016). Temporal trends in death causes in adults attending an urban HIV clinic in Uganda: A retrospective chart review. BMJ Open, 6(1), e008718. Web.

Goyal, S., & Agarwal, N. (2015). Risk factors for severe acute malnutrition in Central India. International Journal of Medical Science Research and Practice, 2(2), 70-72.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). (2018). Uganda. Web.

Isingoma, B. E., Samuel, M., Edward, K., & Maina, G. W. (2017). Socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing feeding practices, morbidity status, and dietary intakes of children aged 7–24 months in rural Uganda. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 56(1), 1-16.

Menon, M. P., & Yoon, S. S. (2015). Prevalence and factors associated with anemia among children under 5 years of age—Uganda, 2009. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93(3), 521-526.

Ministry of Health. (2017). The Uganda national tuberculosis prevalence survey, 2014-2015survey report. Web.

Nalwoga, A., Cose, S., Nash, S., Miley, W., Asiki, G., Kusemererwa, S.,… Newton, R. (2018). Relationship between anaemia, malaria co-infection and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity in a population-based study in rural Uganda. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Web.

Sundararajan, R., Mwanga-Amumpaire, J., Adrama, H., Tumuhairwe, J., Mbabazi, S., Mworozi, K.,… Ware, N. C. (2015). Sociocultural and structural factors contributing to delays in treatment for children with severe malaria: A qualitative study in southwestern Uganda. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 92(5), 933-940.

Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS). (2018). Demographics: Public health. Web.

UNICEF. (2018a). Statistics: Uganda. Web.

UNICEF. (2018b). What we do. Web.

Wanzira, H., Katamba, H., Okullo, A. E., Agaba, B., Kasule, M., & Rubahika, D. (2017). Factors associated with malaria parasitaemia among children under 5 years in Uganda: A secondary data analysis of the 2014 malaria indicator survey dataset. Malaria Journal, 16(1), 191. Web.

WHO. (2018). Uganda. Web.

Wu, L., Yang, Z., Yin, S. A., Zhu, M., & Gao, H. (2015). The relationship between socioeconomic development and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years in China during the period 1990 to 2010. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 24(4), 665-673.

Yeka, A., Nankabirwa, J., Mpimbaza, A., Kigozi, R., Arinaitwe, E., Drakeley, C.,… Staedke, S. G. (2015). Factors associated with malaria parasitemia, anemia and serological responses in a spectrum of epidemiological settings in Uganda. PLoS One, 10(3), e0118901. Web.

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