Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)


Novel avian influenza A (H7N9) is an infectious disease that occurs due to exposure to environments with the virus. This paper will outline the signs and symptoms of the diseases, factors that contribute to emergence and re-emergence, prevention measures, and CDC priority. Also, an explanation of my thoughts on emerging microorganisms and my role as a community health nurse will be provided. The essay will present three research studies that validate the information provided in the paper.

Brief Description

The Asian H7N9 was first detected in China in 2013. The disease occurs after an individual is exposed to poultry that is contaminated. Also, it can occur after contact with surfaces that have been exposed to the disease. The infection has only occurred in mainland China and the outside cases were people who had traveled to China. A total of 1500 people have been infected since the infection outbreak in 2013 (Shi et al., 2017). Among the 1500 infected people, 39% have succumbed to the epidemic.

Signs and Symptoms and Diagnosis

The symptoms of this virus may either be mild or severe. The mild symptoms include cough, sore throat, muscle aches, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and nausea (Zhang et al., 2017). The severe symptoms may include shortness of breath, pneumonia, respiratory failure, seizures, a change in the mental status, and organ failure (Zhang et al., 2017). Nurses and doctors can not use signs and symptoms only and have to rely on laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the virus. The diagnosis is done by collecting a swab from the ill individual. The swab is collected from either the nose or throat.

Contributing Factors

One of the contributing factors is exposure to infected birds either through ingestion of a contaminated bird. Another factor is when an individual breathes air close to an infected bird that has flapped its wings (Shi et al., 2017). Inhalation of the air may cause the emergence of the virus. Another factor is the poor handling of poultries on the farms. Improper farm techniques have contributed to the re-emergence of the virus (Shi et al., 2017). These techniques can be blamed on the need to provide food to a big population which makes farmers adopt shortcuts.

Prevention and Control of the Disease

Avoiding exposure to the infected poultry is one of how individuals can prevent the occurrence of the disease. Also, proper handling of the poultry both from the farm and the market will enhance prevention. The infection can be controlled by the use of influenza antiviral drugs (Shi et al., 2017). Also, the drugs can be used on people who have been exposed to viral infections. One of the challenges is the mutation of the virus which prevents the development of a vaccine. New vaccines have to be made as the virus mutates.

CDC Response

The United States government through the CDC offers support to other states in combating influenza viruses. The organization monitors the novel influenzas in a bid to prevent the emergence of an epidemic (Mobarki et al., 2019). The CDC has laboratories in 100 countries that embark on research and surveillance. The agency receives weekly reports of human respiratory tests from the health institutions in the country. Additionally, the firm develops candidate vaccines for the novel influenza viruses (Mobarki et al., 2019). Furthermore, it provides information that guides people who are traveling to potentially infected zones.

Emerging Antibiotic-Resistant Microorganisms

According to the CDC, the cost of dealing with infections from antibiotic-resistant microorganisms amounts to $4.5billion. Urgent threats to the United States population include candida Auris, clostridioides difficile, and Acinetobacter (Mobarki et al., 2019). The U.S. experiences over 2 million antibiotic-resistant infections every year. Also, serious bacterial and fungi threats include drug-resistant candida, drug-resistant salmonella, drug-resistant Shigella, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and drug-resistant streptococcus pneumonia (Mobarki et al., 2019). The emerging infections that are resistant to antibiotics pose a threat to the overall health of the citizens. There should be continuous effort to prevent resistant bacteria and fungi from spreading to the population.

Community Health Nurse’s Role

A community health nurse plays a big role in preventing epidemics at the community level. The first role is to provide accurate statistics of the occurrences of influenza infections within the community. The information provided by the nurse will be used by health organizations to make decisions. Also, the community health nurses provide awareness of the disease to the community. They organize campaigns and conduct seminars that are aimed at teaching the public about the disease. Furthermore, they perform follow-up exercises on patients who have been cured of the infection to know their progress. This information helps in determining the effectiveness of the treatment.

Research Articles

The study by Zhang et al., (2017) provides an insight into the effects of avian influenza. The research also presents information on the likely sources of the virus. Shi et al., (2017) provide an understanding of the evolution of the H7N9 virus and the risk posed by its rapid virulence. Iuliano et al., (2017) provide a description of the epidemic and the high infection rates caused by the H7N9 virus.


Infection from novel avian influenza A (H7N9) occurs when individuals come into contact with infected birds or are exposed to contaminated surfaces. The mild symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting while the severe symptoms include organ failure and severe respiratory failure. The infection can be prevented by properly handling poultry products and monitoring and surveillance. The emergence of drug-resistant infections poses a major health threat to the United States.


Iuliano, A. D., Jang, Y., Jones, J., Davis, C. T., Wentworth, D. E., Uyeki, T. M.,… & Jernigan, D. B. (2017). Increase in human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus during the fifth epidemic—China, October 2016–February 2017. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 66(9), 254.

Mobarki, N., Almerabi, B., & Hattan, A. (2019). Antibiotic resistance crisis. Int J Med Dev Ctries, 40(4), 561-4.

Shi, J., Deng, G., Ma, S., Zeng, X., Yin, X., Li, M.,… & Chen, H. (2018). The rapid evolution of the H7N9 highly pathogenic virus that emerged in China in 2017. Cell host & microbe, 24(4), 558-568.

Zhang, F., Bi, Y., Wang, J., Wong, G., Shi, W., Hu, F.,… & Gao, G. F. (2017). Human infections with recently emerging highly pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza virus in China. The Journal of infection, 75(1), 71-75.

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NursingBird. (2023, January 3). Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9). Retrieved from


NursingBird. (2023, January 3). Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9).

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"Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)." NursingBird, 3 Jan. 2023,


NursingBird. (2023) 'Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)'. 3 January.


NursingBird. 2023. "Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)." January 3, 2023.

1. NursingBird. "Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)." January 3, 2023.


NursingBird. "Novel Avian Influenza A (h7n9)." January 3, 2023.