Angina refers to discomfort or chest pain that occurs when the heart muscle does not get blood rich in oxygen. There are two types of angina, and an individual experiences pain, pressure, or a squeezing feeling (Reeh et al., 2019). Stable angina is the most common and is controlled by resting, while unstable angina is unpredictable. It is essential to seek medical help to avoid the disease’s adverse effects, such as heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths.
The toxicity of cocaine can cause a mismatch in the demand and supply of myocardial oxygen through different mechanisms such as coronary artery vasoconstriction. Rahman et al. (2019) explain that angina diagnoses include an electrocardiogram (ECG) without blood tests or imaging to assess the heart’s electrical act and rhythm. Scans, for example, chest x-ray or coronary angiography, are conducted to highlight blood vessels and the heart, while an exercise ECG while walking monitors the heartbeat (Rahman et al., 2019). The primary goals for treating E.H.’s condition are reducing the symptoms, minimizing the disease’s progression, and preventing future events such as myocardial infarction.
Patients with heart problems should adopt lifestyle and dietary changes to minimize the possibility of adverse effects. For example, E.H. can be advised to stop cocaine use, seek asthma treatment, and adopt a safe exercise plan. If E.H. is overweight, he can watch what he eats and find ways to reduce stress. Kureshi et al. (2017) explain that a healthy diet is also crucial; therefore, E.H. should consume limited amounts of trans fat, sugar and salt, and saturated fat.
Low-fat dairy products, fruits and vegetables, lean meats, and whole grains are also crucial. The best first-line drug therapy for cocaine-related chest pains includes Benzodiazepines and nitroglycerin (Kureshi et al., 2017). The reason is that Benzodiazepines reserve cocaine’s systematic effects and nitroglycerin alter its vasoconstrictive properties. A healthcare professional can monitor E.H.’s progress by conducting tests and scans to determine the heart’s activity and asking how often he uses cocaine.
Although eating healthy is critical for patients with heart problems, healthy foods can cause dangerous interactions with some medications. For example, grapefruit and pomegranate can interfere with cholesterol medications (Reeh et al., 2019). Additionally, vegetables such as kale and spinach have high vitamin K levels and might counteract drugs’ effectiveness. Additionally, doctors can change angina therapy if the patient experiences adverse health effects.
Different medications can be administered to replace Benzodiazepines if the patient experiences low breathing, extreme drowsiness, confusion, or slurred speech. Nitroglycerin can also be disregarded when individuals have headaches, nausea, dizziness, fast heart rate, or flushes. The second-line treatment includes modified-release nitrates, Ivabradine, Nicorandil, and Ranolazine.
Health care professionals should provide patient education before administering first-line therapy to patients. They should highlight the essentiality of smoking cessation, physical exercise, and occasionally going for hypertension and diabetes screening to manage the condition (Kureshi et al., 2017). The doctor might recommend the patient to a nutritionist for healthy diet guidance. Over-the-counter drugs can be used to reduce the symptom of angina. Kureshi et al. (2017) explain that the doctor can recommend E.H. to take Aspirin and anti-platelet medications because they minimize the possibility of blood clots; therefore, blood smoothly flows through the narrow heart arteries. Painkillers might also be recommended to relieve E.H.’s chest pains.
In summary, angina patients should seek medical help to prevent adverse effects such as premature deaths and heart attacks. Angina is tested through ECG, exercise ECG, and coronary angiography. The first-line treatment for angina is Benzodiazepines and nitroglycerin, which help minimize the disease’s severity. Angina patients should quit smoking, and alcohol, embrace exercise, and eat healthy to prevent its adverse effects.
Kureshi, F., Shafiq, A., Arnold, S. V., Gosch, K., Breeding, T., Kumar, A. S.,… & Spertus, J. A. (2017). The prevalence and management of angina among patients with chronic coronary artery disease across US outpatient cardiology practices: Insights from the Angina Prevalence and Provider Evaluation of Angina Relief (APPEAR) study. Clinical Cardiology, 40(1), 6-10. Web.
Rahman, H., Corcoran, D., Aetesam-ur-Rahman, M., Hoole, S. P., Berry, C., & Perera, D. (2019). Diagnosis of patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary disease in the catheter laboratory. Heart, 105(20), 1536-1542. Web.
Reeh, J., Therming, C. B., Heitmann, M., Højberg, S., Sørum, C., Bech, J.,… & Prescott, E. (2019). Prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease and prognosis in patients with suspected stable angina. European Heart Journal, 40(18), 1426-1435. Web.