This paper presents epidemiological and surveillance data related to rabies, AIDS, and hepatitis B. The research discusses its causes and symptoms, as to how they affect the population of Miami, Florida (zip code: 33111). These diseases were selected as they pose a threat to the county’s population and should be addressed and studied to improve the situation. The paper discusses influenza as well, as it is currently affecting the community. The research also includes a review of the Healthy People 2020 objectives related to these health conditions. It concludes that it is necessary to promote the use of vaccination and early screening to reduce the risks of illnesses.
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that affects the nervous system. It can cause brain damage and death (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018b). The rabies virus is transmitted through the bites of infected animals, such as foxes, raccoons, cats, and bats. In 2018, in Florida, 78 cases of rabies infection were registered; almost 40 of them were caused by raccoon bites, including five incidents reported in Miami-Dade County (“Reported animal rabies,” 2018). The symptoms of the illness are similar to the ones that are associated with other diseases and include fever, headache, and general weakness, as well as anxiety and hallucinations as the illness progresses.
The Healthy People 2020 initiative has developed a plan to eliminate the disease. Its goal is to expand the number of states using electronic data from animal surveillance (Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2018b). Such an objective is designed to enhance access to information about the virus and its outbreaks of public health prevention programs. The recommendations related to rabies include adherence to pre-and post-exposure vaccination schedules.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition caused by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). In Miami, Florida, over 450 new AIDS cases were registered in 2016 (Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County, 2017). It means that the problem is very acute for the community, especially because the disease is untreatable. The Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2018a) states that the Healthy People 2020 objective is to reduce the number of new HIV diagnoses and cases of stage III AIDS.
The initiative also aims to reduce perinatally acquired illnesses, as well as concentrates on increasing the number of medical institutions that provide treatment and support for substance abuse. To achieve its goal, the Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2018a) is planning to improve contraceptive use among the population, promote HIV screening for adolescents and adults, and improve patients’ medication adherence. Moreover, the initiative considers developing educational and community-based programs that discuss the disease, its risks, and family planning.
Hepatitis B is a virus transmitted through body fluids, including semen and blood, which causes liver infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018c). The disease can be either an acute or short-term illness, or a chronic condition; the risks are usually lower for older people. The primary method of hepatitis B prevention is vaccination. In Miami-Dade County, around 47,000 of the population is affected by hepatitis (“Hepatitis program,” 2018). There is the Hepatitis Program that is aimed to educate the residents on the disease prevention methods, provide vaccines and screenings, and offer clinical services to the individuals positive for hepatitis B, and those who are at risk.
The Healthy People 2020 initiative includes several objectives regarding the disease. They include reducing new hepatitis B infections, ensure a high vaccination coverage level, and provide testing within minority communities (Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2018b). To do so, the initiative recommends screening for the risk groups, as well as promotes vaccination and the use of antibiotics, as they are the most significant methods of defense against infectious diseases.
Influenza is a respiratory disease that is caused by flu viruses. It can be present as a mild to severe condition, which may also be deadly (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018a). In Miami-Dade County, the breakdown of the disease can be indicated throughout the whole year, with the majority of cases commonly registered in the late fall (Florida Department of Health, 2018a). The symptoms may include fever and sore throat, as well as muscle aches, headaches, and fatigue.
The Healthy People 2020 objectives consider eliminating the cases of influenza among other infectious diseases. They include maintaining effective vaccination coverage levels and increase the number of individuals vaccinated annually (Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2018b). To do so, the initiative plans to collect vaccination information through telephone and mail surveys and promote the adequate use of vaccines and antibiotics, as well as preliminary screening and testing. Another significant goal is to make vaccination available to a large population, including no-cost access to it.
Rabies, AIDS, hepatitis B, and influenza may cause serious health risks for individuals. It is necessary to use vaccination for their prevention, and medications for their treatment or control. The Healthy People 2020 objectives are to eliminate the number of infections caused by the viruses and to promote the methods of their maintenance. The initiative also aims to establish educational programs to address the diseases and the risks associated with them.
Reported animal rabies in Florida. (2018). Web.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018a). Flu symptoms & complications. Web.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018b). Rabies. Web.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018c). Viral hepatitis. Web.
Florida Department of Health (2018a). Florida flu review. Web.
Florida Department of Health (2018b). Hepatitis program. Web.
Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County (2017). AIDS cases diagnosed from 2014 to 2016. Web.
Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2018a). HIV. Web.
Office for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2018b). Immunization and infectious diseases: Objectives. Web.