|Definition||Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease characterized by repeated spontaneous seizures (paroxysms) that occur as a result of excessive neuronal discharges.|
|History||Epilepsy has been known to mankind for a long time. The first known mention of epilepsy came from 500-700 years BC from Babylon. Stone slabs were found that contained a detailed description of the disease, types of attacks, provoking factors, and post-attack symptoms. In 450 BC, Hippocrates first stated that the disease has completely natural causes and originates in the brain. In 1888, John Jackson gave one of the first definitions of epilepsy.|
|Symptoms||The disease manifests itself in the form of short-term involuntary convulsions in any part of the body, or convulsions affect the entire body. Sometimes attacks are accompanied by loss of consciousness and loss of control over bowel or bladder functions. Seizures can range from minor memory lapses and muscle spasms to severe, prolonged convulsions.|
|Causes||There are many factors that lead to the occurrence of spontaneous bioelectrical activity (neuronal discharges) that lead to recurrent epileptic seizures. The causes of epilepsy include structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune and unknown etiological factors.|
|Prevention||Epilepsy prevention is a healthy lifestyle. Some forms of epilepsy can be corrected with a ketogenic diet, which is characterized by a minimum amount of carbohydrates, medium – proteins and high – fats (up to 80% of all calories). The transition to this style of eating should be carried out only with the permission of a doctor and take place under strict supervision.|
|Diagnostic Method||EEG (electroencephalography) is the main diagnostic method. In patients with epilepsy, changes in the nature of brain waves are recorded even in those moments when they do not experience seizures. Another fundamental methods of diagnosing epilepsy are the methods of visual diagnostics – computer and magnetic resonance imaging.|
|Treatment||The basis of therapy is medication in form of anticonvulsants, neuroleptics, tranquilizers, nootropics, and diuretics. If medications are not effective enough, doctors may resort to surgery. The choice of a specific operation depends on the localization of the pathological focus and the form of the disease.|
|Duration||Treatment is a long and complex process aimed at resolving most severe symptoms.|
|Prognosis||Even with the correct selection of drugs and the complete absence of any manifestations for a long time, doctors only talk about stable remission, but not about the complete elimination of the disease.|
|Complications||With epilepsy, the following complications are possible: epileptic status of generalized seizures, physical injuries, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema, depression of consciousness up to coma, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as thrombosis of intracranial veins.|
|Frequency in Population||According to WHO, approximately one in 4-10 people out of 1000 worldwide suffer from active epilepsy – this is one of the most common neurological diseases.|
|Deaths||Mortality due to epilepsy is a significant concern. Patients with epilepsy have a mortality rate significantly higher than that of the general population. The standardized mortality rate is shown to be 1.6–9.3 times higher in current population.|
|Society||The misconception about epilepsy often puts patients in a difficult position when they are forced to deal with the fear of stigmatization and discrimination. They are afraid to work at full strength, to study with maximum efficiency, which prevents them from satisfying one of the most important human needs – self-realization|
📝 Epilepsy Research Papers Examples
- Epileptic Seizures: Mechanisms and CharacteristicsIn neurology, the study of epileptic seizures is important. Focal and generalized seizures with their unique subtypes are two primary forms of seizures.
🏆 Best Epilepsy Essay Titles
- Aberrant Metabolic Patterns Networks in Insular Epilepsy
- Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Seizures in Patients With Epilepsy
- Altered Effective Connectivity Among Core Neurocognitive Networks in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy
- Altered White Matter Structural Network in Frontal and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- American Students’ Worst Case of Bullying: Misunderstanding the Condition of Epilepsy
- Analyzing the Psychological Effects of Epilepsy
- Anterior Cingulate Epilepsy: Mechanisms and Modulation
- Antiepileptogenic and Neuroprotective Effects of Pergularia Daemia on Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy
- Arterial Spin Labeling Reveals Disrupted Brain Networks and Functional Connectivity in Drug-Resistant Temporal Epilepsy
- Association Between HLA Genotype and Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Antiepileptic Drugs Among Epilepsy Patients in Northwest China
- Bone Mineral Density Loss in People With Epilepsy Taking Valproate as a Monotherapy
- Caloric Restriction and Ketogenic Diet Therapy for Epilepsy
- Causes and Effects Contributing to Sudden Death in Epilepsy and the Rationale for Prevention and Intervention
- Children and Adolescents With New-Onset Epilepsy
- Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Epilepsy in Children
- Cognitive Processing Impacts High-Frequency Intracranial EEG Activity of Human Hippocampus in Patients With Pharmacoresistant Focal Epilepsy
- Combining Gamma With Alpha and Beta Power Modulation for Enhanced Cortical Mapping in Patients With Focal Epilepsy
- Dystrophin Distribution and Expression in Human and Experimental Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- Elevated Blood C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients With Epilepsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
- Epilepsy: The Problem, Research Techniques, and Treatments
- Epileptogenesis: Gabaa Receptor Subtypes in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- Functional and Structural Correlates of Memory in Patients With Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- Genetically Epilepsy-Prone Rats Display Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Neuropsychiatric Comorbidities of Epilepsy
- Heterozygous PGM3 Variants Are Associated With Idiopathic Focal Epilepsy With Incomplete Penetrance
- Impaired Baroreflex Sensitivity After Bilateral Convulsive Seizures in Patients With Focal Epilepsy
- Incidence, Recurrence, and Risk Factors for Peri-Ictal Central Apnea and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy
- Interictal Heart Rate Variability Analysis Reveals Lateralization of Cardiac Autonomic Control in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- Longitudinal MRI Volumetric Evaluation in Patients With Familial Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Childhood Epilepsy at a Tertiary Hospital in Kenya
- Major Depressive Disorder Associated With Reduced Cortical Thickness in Women With Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- Multimodal Data and Machine Learning for Detecting Specific Biomarkers in Pediatric Epilepsy Patients With Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures
- Neonatal Tactile Stimulations Affect Genetic Generalized Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression-Like Behaviors
- Neurophysiological and Genetic Findings in Patients With Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
- Next Generation Sequencing Methods for Diagnosis of Epilepsy Syndromes
- Pathophysiology and Clinical Utility of Non-coding RNAs in Epilepsy
- Physical Exercise Restores the Generation of Newborn Neurons in an Animal Model of Chronic Epilepsy
- Potential Use and Challenges of Functional Connectivity Mapping in Intractable Epilepsy
- Ranking the Leading Risk Factors for Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy
- Relationship Between Seizure Frequency and Functional Abnormalities in Limbic Network of Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
- The Recommendations for the Management of Chinese Children With Epilepsy During the COVID-19 Outbreak
❓ Epilepsy Research Questions
- What Are the Risk Factors for Epilepsy?
- What Is Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy?
- What’s the Difference Between Seizures and Epilepsy?
- Are Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters Potential Treatment Targets for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy?
- What Tests May Be Performed to Determine Candidacy for Epilepsy Surgery?
- Can You Drive if You Suffer From Epilepsy?
- What Are the Side Effects of Epilepsy Medications?
- Is There a Cure for Epilepsy?
- Can You Grow Out of Epilepsy?
- What Is Epilepsy Surgery?
- Are Variants Causing Cardiac Arrhythmia Risk Factors in Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy?
- How Many People Have Epilepsy?
- What Should Epileptics Avoid?
- How Is Epilepsy Treated?
- Are There Alternative Treatments for Epilepsy?
- How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed?
- What’s Important to Know About Epilepsy During Pregnancy?
- What Is Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Epilepsy?
- When Was Epilepsy Discovered?
- Does Epilepsy Strike at Any Particular Age?