A nursing care model is a tool with which a patient receives a set of nursing services. A nursing care model establishes major values and policies for a specific facility. Hospitals implement the model which best satisfies their general approach to treatment and patient. All of these models are effective and have their advantages and disadvantages. The latter can create obstacles in treatment and delivery of the nursing services. This kind of models are vital for the effective functioning of the clinic. The one I observed was a patient-centered care model. A positive state of the patient is a major priority for this model. However, not all of the modern clinics can apply this model and use it is a primary strategy for the medical assistance and understanding of the patient.
Review of Nursing Care Models
Patient-centered care model focuses on patient’s welfare as the central value for a medical worker. The model has multiple dimensions and concepts which help to achieve patient’s satisfaction (Berghout, van Exel, Leensvaart, & Cramm, 2015). The care should be safe, effective, and timely. The life of the patient is the dominant value for a nurse and other medical workers. Hence, treatment, care, and any therapeutic activity have to be around the welfare of patients. Using this model, increases nurses’ ability to respond to the specific needs of the patient and meet one’s satisfaction and demands (Berghout et al., 2015). Due to the fact that each patient requires individual treatment, the model helps to develop a personalized approach to the condition of the patient. With a customized approach, the quality of care increases, as well as its effectiveness.
Furthermore, it is necessary to suggest that the model helps to understand the patient better, one’s background, lifestyle. It is an essential step in determining the role of the patient in treatment as some diseases require the involvement of the individual, one’s family and friends, and changes in lifestyle (Chang & Ritchie, 2015, p. 871). Unlike other models, it is possible to consider these elements and use them as a set of tools for successful treatment. The patient-centered care model helps the patient to integrate with the treatment and actively participate with a therapist and nurses to achieve a common goal of being healthy. The model saves time and resources for the clinic as it reduces unnecessary activity which does not revolve around the patient’s welfare.
An opposite model is a primary nursing model. This model focuses on resources that the clinic has and its effective utilization. In some instances, hospitals are not able to provide the best services they can because of financial limitations, lack of personnel, or outdated equipment (Salmond & Echevarria, 2017). Under these conditions, nurses have to be able to provide the best quality they can concerning the resources and tools they have. Inevitably, every medical worker wants to give the best treatment possible, but the services depend on the hospital, its status, budget, and overall professionalism of employees (Salmond & Echevarria, 2017). However, this model is better at providing medical assistance even under extreme conditions. Therefore, the medical workers in this model will use every opportunity they have to create a healthy environment for the patient.
Unlike patient-centered care model, nurses do not have to concentrate on patient’s values and needs of each one of them. Instead, they make the decisions regarding treatment, a period of treatment, and what are the primary tools to use (Wen & Schulman, 2014). In addition, nurses and therapist have an advantage of using a universal approach to every patient with the similar disease. Under conditions of limited resources, it is impossible and irresponsible to provide personalized treatment to every patient. Thus, the general methods of treatment might save time and human resources, when it comes to similar cases of the disease. However, this comes at a cost, as the model typically concentrates more on patients who have severe stages of the disease, while more or less stable patients with no direct threat to life can receive less attention.
In the hospital, I observed the patient-centered care model and its incorporation. The most noticeable feature of the model is communication. Typically, nurses and therapist talk to patient about their physical state and wellbeing. However, patient-centered model allows nurses to be closer to patients and understand them better as it might be helpful for treatment. Nurses do not limit communication to a questionnaire about the personal state, but they ask about the mood that patient has, one’s opinion about treatment and plans for the future. Communication helps to build a detailed picture of the patient, his or her habits, preferences, and challenges one faces during treatment. Due to communication, cooperation between patient and medical workers increases and treatment becomes more effective.
At the same time, the patient-centered model heavily relies on resources of the clinic. The hospital where I observed the model had a significant budget for every patient, enough supplies for nurses and therapist to dispose of, and for unpredictable challenges. This hospital is profitable, and it helps its patients to use the most advanced equipment and techniques in order to change the state of patient for the better. Although, the model is useful and beneficial it provides the patient with significant control over one’s treatment. In some cases, patient has too many options, and they might be confusing for him or her. It might prolong therapy because patient can abuse this control and disregard therapist’s advices.
However, it is necessary to state that a team-based care model can be even more effective for patients. This model concentrates on the close collaboration of nurses and therapists in treating the patient (Wen & Schulman, 2014). It helps to determine an optimal approach and to establish a credible relationship with patient. Furthermore, medical workers develop a plan which is safe and preserves resources of the hospital. In other words, it is a combination of patient-centered and primary care models. However, it is a relatively new model which is not widely implemented in a health care system (Wen & Schulman, 2014). It has shown a definite tendency regarding quality of nursing services and their influence on patient’s health. The model also carefully utilizes resources of the hospital, while satisfying needs of patients.
In conclusion, patient-centered care model is beneficial for the medical facilities which are profitable and where patient can afford the treatment. However, in clinics where resources are scarce, and there is a limited number of employees, the primary care model can be used as the principal policy. One of the most innovative models is a team-based one. It helps to create a balance between nurses, therapists, and patients regarding control over treatment and usage of resources. Incorporation of the specific model heavily relies on the status of the clinic and the accessibility of resources. The models continuously develop, and in the future, they will be even more effective. However, the goal of all of the models is to treat the patient and increase the quality of health care services.
Berghout, M., van Exel, J., Leensvaart, L., & Cramm, J. (2015). Healthcare professionals’ views on patient-centered care in hospitals. BMC Health Services Research, 15(385). doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-1049-z
Chang, A., & Ritchie, C. (2015). Patient-centered models of care: Closing the gaps in physician readiness. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30(7), 870-872.
Salmond, S., & Echevarria, M. (2017). Healthcare transformation and changing roles for nursing. Orthopedic Nursing, 36(1), 12-25.
Wen, J., & Schulman, K. (2014). Can team-based care improve patient satisfaction? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. A Peer-Reviewed Open Access Journal, 9(7), e100603. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100603