Self-Care and Personal Health Plan Development

Self-care is a very important approach to deal with potential health risks. Regular people might apply multiple principles to reduce the chances of different illnesses. This paper’s main goal is to discuss aspects pertinent to the development of a personal health plan.

Unhealthy Patterns

Many unhealthy habits increase the chances for the development of various diseases. However, some of them are more common and more dangerous than others. First, it is necessary to drink enough water. People should keep track of their daily water consumption as frequent dehydration might lead to problems with skin, muscles, and joints. It can also negatively affect some internal organs such as kidneys or liver because water helps to purge toxins from the body. Second, an unhealthy diet that includes high-fat or high-sugar products, late meals, and consuming too many calories might result in very serious health problems. For example, it might lead to a stroke, heart attack, diabetes, and even some cancer types. Third, a sedentary lifestyle is also a very common unhealthy behavior. Not doing exercise is one of the main reasons that lead to obesity. Physical activities increase life expectancy. They also reduce the risk of some chronic illnesses, for example, breast or prostate cancer. Fourth, sleep deprivation is another significant problem. It compromises the entire immune system and also often leads to depression. Finally, cleaning and washing are very important. All objects with which people often come into contact are teeming with millions of germs and bacteria. It is necessary to abide by the general rules of hygiene to prevent the dissemination of infectious diseases.

However, in my case, the most likely problem is heart disease. I have a family history of this disorder. Thus I’m genetically predisposed to it. Therefore, all the behaviors mentioned above are relevant for me.

Literature Review

Heart disease is a term that encompasses a variety of conditions that affect the heart. Such diseases include arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and some others. Various studies have been conducted regarding the matter. For example, in the work by Anderson et al. (2016), the authors provide up-to-date statistics on patients with cardiovascular diseases. These data are necessary for care providers, policymakers, scholars, and other specialists working on problems related to heart disease. This study also reveals major health behaviors and factors associated with the disorder. The authors highlight an increased focus on prevention strategies and the promotion of healthy behavioral patterns. The major factors that increase the chances for heart disease development include family history and genetics, high blood cholesterol and other lipids, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. In another work by Mozaffarian et al. (2015), the authors discuss coronary heart disease management. They reviewed the findings of the meta-analysis of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) that was based on exercises.

The results revealed that CR helped to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospital admission rates. Also, most of the revised studies demonstrated that CR improved the quality of life in patients with heart disease. The data proved the rightness of the authors’ conclusions. The next study evaluates the effectiveness of “five commonly used blood pressure-lowering drugs in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with nonacute cardiovascular disease” (Xie et al., 2018, para. 1). The authors searched through such databases as PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. They examined patients with myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cerebral artery disease. The analyzed data proved the positive effect of such medication as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and diuretics. These drugs successfully addressed secondary outcomes and stroke.


To decrease chances for the development of heart disease, it is necessary to elaborate an action plan. Except for family history, other risk factors can be addressed. The first step is to go on a heart-healthy diet. The following are two very effective food plans: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan and the Mediterranean diet. These are diets that consist of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free dairy products, and fish. Also, it is necessary to cut down on salt and sugar. The second step is to start exercising at least thirty minutes three times a week. Physical activities are one of the major methods to control weight. They also help to prevent the development of high blood pressure and high cholesterol. However, such activities should not be grueling. The most appropriate ones include walking or slow jogging. The final step is to fix a sleep schedule.

The statistics prove the necessity of such measures. The analysis of various data revealed that 45 percent of deaths caused by heart disease are associated with unhealthy diets (“Poor diet linked,” n.d.). However, other principles might be applied in this case. Dr. Watson’s caring theory promotes the idea that spiritual and emotional factors are as important as others (“Dr. Watson’s caring theory,” n.d.). Although these principles are mostly used in delivering care, they are also effective for self-care practices as they help to deal with the possible risks more effectively and comprehensively.


In conclusion, health outcomes directly depend on behavioral patterns. It is very important to assess one’s risks to address them effectively. In most cases, general recommendations might be very useful. Healthful eating habits, physical activities, and healthy sleep are the main components of a lifestyle that reduce the chances of developing different diseases.


Anderson, L., Oldridge, N., Thompson, D. R., Zwisler, A. D., Rees, K., Martin, N., & Taylor, R. S. (2016). Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 67(1), 1-12.

Dr. Watson’s caring theory. (n.d.). Web.

Mozaffarian, D., Benjamin, E. J., Go, A. S., Arnett, D. K., Blaha, M. J., Cushman, M.,… & Huffman, M. D. (2015). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2015 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 131(4), e29-e322.

Poor diet linked to half of heart disease, stroke, diabetes deaths. (n.d.). Web.

Xie W, Zheng F, Evangelou E, Liu O, Yang Z, Chan Q,… Wu Y. (2018). Blood pressure-lowering drugs and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Web.

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1. NursingBird. "Self-Care and Personal Health Plan Development." November 8, 2023.


NursingBird. "Self-Care and Personal Health Plan Development." November 8, 2023.