Identify the Program
Simulation-based medical training is one of the most important developments in medical curriculum development. Simulation is a term that generally refers to the representation of real-world processes artificially (So et al., 2019). In medical training, simulation refers to educational activities utilizing simulation aides to mimic clinical scenarios. Simulation might be relatively new in medical education, but it has been used for a long time in other fields such as aviation (Al-Elq, 2010). Some elements to consider in simulation include the technology to be employed. The objective is to get learners to engage in the simulated scenario and then obtain feedback and debriefing. Simulation is important because it provides complete control of the flow of tasks and provides guidance and support to learners while avoiding dangerous and unsafe situations. It also makes it possible to study scenarios that are rare in the real world. This paper will look at the results of simulation-based training in the field of medicine and their effectiveness.
Purpose of Evaluation
Medical education is increasingly adopting curricula based on psychomotor, cognitive, and effective learning domains first proposed nearly five decades ago. The reforms are tailored around standards of care, patient safety, error management, resource allocation, and patient autonomy (Datta et al., 2012). There is a shift to more hands-on medical education. Simulation learning involves the artificial representation of real-world scenarios. The application of these methods to actual patients has not been fully accepted in society and could be subject to ethical issues. This paper will look at real data on simulation training.
Studies have shown that simulation training in medicine is important in helping medical students and residents in attaining and strengthening knowledge and in evaluating their performance. According to Chakravarthy et al. (2011), simulation training has been shown to enhance the understanding of basic medical concepts such as pharmacology and physiology. This was particularly true if simulation methods were introduced at the beginning of the medical course. Some medical disciplines have more affinity for simulation methods than others. Anesthesiology has been at the forefront in adopting simulation in the form of screen-based simulators and even mannequins by extensively using them for residents and faculty for mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and cricothyrotomy. In Obstetrics, simulation is used to teach residents how to manage emergencies and manage difficult deliveries. Virtual reality is increasingly getting adopted in the field of surgery in training procedures such as cholecystectomy.
Emergency Medicine Simulation
Even though EM is a relatively young discipline, it has been one of the quickest to adopt simulation. According to Okuda et al. (2008), in a five-year study carried out between 2003 and 2008, 122 of 134 residency programs participating in the study used some type of simulation tool to train residents. The surveyed programs had used simulation tools to train and assess residents on teamwork (75%) and professionalism (59%). Therefore, simulation in emergency medicine proved to be useful in both academic and professional aspects of residency education (Okuda et al., 2008). There has also been the adoption of simulation education in EM clerkships. In a study conducted to investigate the use of simulation methods in EM clerkships, 95 students in surgery, internal medicine, and EM clerkships volunteered to participate in a 2-hour simulation session on managing acute scenarios (Takayesu et al., 2006). After the session, the students got an opportunity to qualitatively assess the value of the experience. 94% of the participants rated the session as excellent, and 91% suggested that the exercise be compulsory as part of the curriculum.
In another study on the efficacy of simulation methods, a prospective study in Loma Linda University sought to investigate the effectiveness of using simulation to train resuscitation during shock and sepsis. The students reported that the exercise boosted their confidence in handling real-world scenarios (Nguyen et al., 2009). In another study investigating the efficacy of simulation training techniques showed that the 41 participating students rated the experience positively. The exercise was an interactive simulator laboratory session on handling thoracic surgery in the ED (Smolle et al., 2007). The students exhibited a significant increase (14%) in knowledge level and ended up preferring the method over traditional ones.
A study was carried out to investigate the retention of clinical skills for medical students after simulation training. The study involved 51 students in their final year of study (Offiah et al., 2019). The participants had access to online pre-course material and procedural manuals. Seven of the tasks that had been taught over two years with task trainers were chosen (Offiah et al., 2019). After a demonstration from trainers, students were able to practice in groups with supervision from faculty and peer support. There were minimum passing standards for each skill; an unannounced test was administered after 18 months to test the retention of skills. The results showed that 55% of students had a deficiency in 3 or more skills while 5% had incompetency in more than five skills (Offiah et al., 2019). Quite a number of students had never practiced the skills since the time of the simulation training. There was a noted relationship between the self-declared number of times by the student and their performance. There was evidence of both cognitive and psychomotor skill domains.
It has been demonstrated that simulation training works but works better when it is introduced as early as possible during the medical training course. A dichotomy exists in simulation training where there are offsite simulation centers or in situ inhouse training where team-based activities take place in their own working environments. Insitu training provides a blend of training with a real working environment. Insitu simulation can be unannounced and announced, with the former referred to as a drill. According to Sørensen et al. (2017), while there is no proven individual advantage of using in situ or offsite training over the other, departmental-based simulation training has benefits in improving organizational learning while drills with drills offering more organizational enrichment than announced sessions.
The analysis carried out in this paper is intended for a knowledgeable audience. The data analysis has been qualitative, with information derived from various academic sources. For a non-academic audience, only a change of language would be necessary. Researchers increasingly use visualization to help them make sense of their data and capture a wider audience. According to Allen (2018), various intermediaries such as data collectors and designers are crucial in linking researchers with audiences by contributing to how people interact with visualizations. Brokers’ credibility and element of surprise from visualizations are important factors in content visualization. Students should also be included in the decision to introduce new training methods. In a study at the Nelson Mandela School of Medicine, there was a proposed curriculum change (McLean, 2003). A survey of year 1-5 students was carried out before the introduction of new programs. The survey showed that it is important to involve students in curricula reforms.
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