The endocrine functions of the Kidney to regulate BP
A part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (renin) is formed in the kidneys, which regulates the tone of blood vessels. It also maintains the balance of sodium in the body and the volume of circulating blood, activates adrenergic mechanisms for controlling the pumping function of the heart and vascular tone.
Using renal calculi as a prototype, description of the complication of urinary tract obstruction
A complication of urinary tract obstruction in renal calculi is expressed in kidney block and hydronephrosis — blockage of the ureter with concretion makes it impossible to drain urine.
What risk factors lead to Renal diseases, and are renal diseases inherited?
The unavoidable factors of renal diseases include age, gender, and heredity (kidney diseases can be inherited). Avoidable risk factors include non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, infections of the genitourinary tract, and the lack of a healthy lifestyle (smoking, poor nutrition, low physical activity).
Comparison and contrast infections of the UTI, Pyelonephritis, and glomerulonephritis with respect to pathophysiology and clinical manifestations and prognosis
The pathophysiology of pyelonephritis is of bacterial origin: it can be caused by various bacteria, including E. coli. Urinary tract infection has similar pathophysiology: the most common factors that cause UTIs are bacteria, less often viruses, fungi, or parasites. Glomerulonephritis has different pathogenesis: it occurs due to immune-inflammatory processes in the body. The causes of its occurrence may be urinary tract infections, hereditary predisposition, or autoimmune diseases.
A urinary tract infection’s symptoms are very prominent: among them are a burning sensation in the urethra, and frequent and painful urination in small portions. Sometimes the release of blood drops can occur at the end of urination. Pyelonephritis is characterized by high fever, chills, sweating, pain in the lumbar region. In severe cases, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, thirst, sharp weakness occur. As with UTI, in glomerulonephritis blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting are possible. As for the distinctive clinical manifestations of the disease, it is possible to distinguish edema of the face, feet, and shins, and an increase in blood pressure.
Treatment of patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections is not particularly difficult: in most cases, conditions can be treated with antibacterial drugs. Treatment of complicated diseases of the genitourinary tract presents significant difficulties. They are characterized by a persistent, long-term treatment course, and a tendency to transition to a chronic stage with frequent relapses. If complete recovery does not occur within three months in the acute phase of pyelonephritis, complications such as kidney failure or sepsis can appear. Glomerulonephritis in most cases is treated as easily as uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The prognosis depends on the degree of scarring of the glomeruli and whether the cause of the disease can be cured.
Etiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of acute kidney failure
Acute kidney failure can be provoked by diseases of the urinary system, cardiovascular system disorders, endogenous and exogenous toxic effects, and other factors. It is characterized by pronounced proteinuria, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypernatremia, metabolic acidosis. With edema of the lung due to hyperhydration, shortness of breath, and wet wheezing appear. To stimulate diuresis, the patient is prescribed furosemide and osmotic diuretics. To reduce the vasoconstriction of the renal vessels, dopamine is administered. The patient is transferred to a protein-free diet, the intake of potassium from food is limited.
Etiology, clinical manifestation, and the treatment of chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure can become the outcome of chronic glomerulonephritis, nephritis in systemic diseases, hereditary nephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, and other diseases that affect both kidneys or a single kidney. CRF has a progressive course; in the early stages, it is manifested by a general malaise (Rabb, 2020). With an increase in CRF, there are pronounced symptoms of intoxication of the body, such as weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and edema. As a treatment, it is necessary to monitor the level of glomerular filtration, concentration function of the kidneys, renal blood flow, urea, and creatinine levels. In the case of homeostasis disorders, the acid-base composition, azotemia, and the water-salt balance of the blood are corrected. Symptomatic treatment consists of treating anemic, hemorrhagic, and hypertensive syndromes, maintaining regular cardiac activity.
Rabb, H. (2020). Kidney diseases in the time of COVID-19: Major challenges to patient care. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 10(6), 31-48.