Information Security in Healthcare: Education Methods


Education is key to success, which means that it is a major necessity in an individual’s life. Through education, students can learn various things, including learning how to deal with arising matters like the increased cybercrimes, phishing, and spam emails. There are various teaching methods and can be categorized into teacher-centered, content-focused, and learner-centered methods (Kovalenko et al., 2018). All these are techniques of training with the aim of impacting learners with knowledge. This paper discusses these education methods, ways that organizations can protect patients’ information from hacking, and how the education techniques can be applied to educate an organization’s staff on phishing and spam emails.

Education Methods

There are several educational methods; one of them being instructor-led training. This training takes place in training rooms, mostly in a classroom, office, or conference rooms. It involves one or several instructors where they lecture, present, demonstrate or discuss skills or materials to an individual or group (Kovalenko et al 2018). It is mainly used to instruct a group; this allows one to deliver adequate trainee hours of training for every instructor’s hour. A one-on-one learning is also under this program, but it is quite expensive. Of its advantages is that it allows one to a big group of people all at once by using several techniques like exercises and games. Learners can also get a better understanding as they have the opportunity to share ideas as they work in groups and negotiate with their mates. It also has several disadvantages, including hardships in providing personalized instructions and difficulties in keeping up with first learners for students who benefit most from personal training.

Another education method is eLearning, which is a long-distance method of providing training to learners. It takes place through the Internet; hence, it majorly depends on technology. Therefore, it is not a necessity to have the trainer and the learner at the same venue and time (Tiwari, 2019). This distance learning method is administered through letters, press, television, and other social media platforms; it has greatly shown its positive impacts on the learners and the trainers.

Distance learning has several advantages; for instance, its application scope being very wide as learners learn through technological tools. It also gives learners opportunities to participate in those classes as the trainer can post questions to be answered by students through their screens (Tiwari, 2019). Additionally, it allows the reviewing and updating of both learning and revision materials, correcting errors, and ensuring that their information is up to date with the learner’s expectations. Among its disadvantages is the lack of social interactions among students, which leads to their isolation as they do not get to meet and interact physically. Moreover, it has led to an increased number of people cheating in their assessments as there are no supervisors to watch over students during exams.

Self-guided learning is an education method in which learners take the role with no dependency on others in their education, formulating their goals, identifying the available resources for learners, and setting appropriate strategies for study. It involves taking personal responsibility for all learning requirements: education, a fun activity, or a project to learn it all by yourself without asking for help from a trainer (Kovalenko et al., 2018) Therefore, it may depend on one’s skills and understanding power since it may require one to understand a concept from seeing an activity being carried out if he or she has a passion in it. Among its advantages is allowing a learner to engage in training at her own pace and preferred time. It also gives students independence in their understanding as they can read with questions in mind and relate to their daily lives. Its limitations include lack of discipline among students considering that they have the freedom to do it at their own pace. It also causes isolation as there are no face-to-face interactions among the students, as well as a lack of inputs from trainers with slow evolutions.

Just-in-time training is a strategy that aims at promoting the utilization of class time for more active learning. It has its set format followed in order to ensure the students are given quality education. It includes having formative assessments, which are set questions for learners to inform the instructor on the comprehension rate of their students (Kovalenko et al., 2018). It is mostly facilitated through short online videos, printed and related real-world information. Its advantage is that it enhances relevance and relatability as it is easily accessible. Moreover, it gives solutions that help in fulfilling the goals of the students.

Blended learning is an educational approach that combines online materials and gives interaction opportunities online with traditional place-based classroom methods. It is based on the physical presence of both student and teacher, where students are given control over some elements, which include time (Kovalenko et al. 2018). Among its advantages is that engagement can be tracked and improved, communication is enhanced, and it also helps in the reduction of cost. However, it has disadvantages that include overworking of teachers. Additionally, it leads to cognitive load for students as well as credibility and plagiarism being their major issues.

Protection of Patient Information By An Organization

Security measures are set to protect patients’ information by organizations, including firewalls, antivirus software, and intrusion detection. Firewalls keep off every unauthorized individual from getting access to your data and network. Through the above set security mechanisms, security professionals use physical, technical, and administrative security control balance in their programs to enact further controls to mitigate the risks in information security (Chenthara et al., 2019). They should also set security solutions to allow remote deletion of stored data on mobile devices in cases of theft and loss. Administrative and personnel issues are another method of protecting patient’s information. The organization should set up a web filter to prevent its workers from accessing malicious websites. It should also ensure data encryption in all its portable devices as well as encryption to protect data in emails.

Level of access is another method of securing patient’s information in an organization. This means that access and privacy controls are set in order to prevent improper entry from the organization’s side. This can also be achieved by securing a messaging platform that encrypts all communications; setting up auditing solutions to monitor all improper access of information from patients (Azeez & Van der Vyver, 2019). Another technique is handling and disposal of confidential information, which includes ensuring that there are adequate backups which means that patient information can never be lost. On how the data should be handled, the organization should have a spam filter that blocks unknown emails and malware and has an antivirus option that blocks and notices malware on the system. All data that are no longer in use should be carefully displaced to ensure the patient’s confidentiality is maintained.

Provision and Evaluation of Education

Instructor-led training method can be applied where the staff training can be organized as a meeting for all workers. The teaching can be through practicals, where they are shown the examples of cases of phishing and spam emails. Thereafter, a guide on how to prevent phishing and spam emails is offered. On eLearning, the staff can look for previous notes online discussing how to deal with phishing and spam emails. Every staff should ensure they set their time to research online on the rising issue. Through self-guided learning, all staff should involve their critical thinking to weigh on the major causes of phishing and spam emails as well as evaluate how to prevent them.

In the case of just-in-time training, lessons should be given to the staff on phishing and spam emails, and the staff’s understanding tested through questions on the same. The workers should also gather online materials on the issues stated and later have an interactive section with the rest of the staff and share their different research solutions to come up with the best information on phishing and spam mails. According to Ahmad et al. (2018), the evaluation of these methods is possible through various methods. This includes the conduction of surveys, use of templates for instructor-led training, rating for eLearning, attempts for self-guided technique and student’s reaction, quizzes, checking student’s behavior and their results in blended studying.


Every education method is important with its merits and demerits, but the main purpose for all is equipping students with knowledge. With all the information offered or learned through self-guided learning, an organization can now learn how to protect every patient’s data to enhance confidentiality. It is also important to enlighten the staff as it helps an organization in dealing with cases of phishing and spam emails.


Ahmad, S. Z., Bakar, A. R. A., & Ahmad, N. (2018). An evaluation of teaching methods of entrepreneurship in hospitality and tourism programs. The International Journal of Management Education, 16(1), 14-25.

Azeez, N. A., & Van der Vyver, C. (2019). Security and privacy issues in e-health cloud-based system: A comprehensive content analysis. Egyptian Informatics Journal, 20(2), 97-108.

Chenthara, S., Ahmed, K., Wang, H., & Whittaker, F. (2019). Security and privacy-preserving challenges of e-health solutions in cloud computing. IEEE Access, 7, 74361-74382.

Kovalenko, K. E., Kovalenko, N. E., & Gubareva, A. V. (2018). Active and interactive methods in the contemporary education. QUID: Investigación, Ciencia y Tecnología, (2), 17-20.

Tiwari, A. (2019). The need for e-learning in 21st century. Research Dimensions, 7(1), 83-88.

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