Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment


Breast cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the breast tissues. It is one of the most predominant cancers globally and affects a significant proportion of both men and women, although it is more prevalent in the latter. This paper is dedicated to breast cancer and considers the causes and symptoms of the disease, diagnostic procedures, treatment options, and critical data on the disease and current research on the topic.

Causes of the Disease

A variety of factors contribute to the development of breast cancer. The disease can be caused by genetic, reproductive, hormonal, and environmental factors (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). For example, research shows that late-onset menopause, hormonal contraception methods, and diabetes diagnosis are associated with breast cancer (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). Environmental factors such as air pollution and exposure to radiation are also positively correlated with the development of cancer.

Current Research on Breast Cancer

Current research on breast cancer focuses on screening, prevention, and treatment. Recent studies aim to develop early screening procedures that can help diagnose breast cancer at earlier stages, for example, breast tomosynthesis (National Cancer Institute, 2022). Research into the treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer, hormone-positive cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive cancer is also being carried out (National Cancer Institute, 2022). Overall, current research studies can contribute to more early-stage diagnoses and better patient outcomes.

Breast Cancer Symptoms

Breast cancer can present via several characteristic signs and symptoms. The change in the shape and feel of breasts is symptomatic of breast cancer (Ikhuoria & Bach, 2018). The development of breast lumps and pain in the breasts or armpits can also be indicative of cancer (Ikhuoria & Bach, 2018). Changes in the shape of the nipples, including nipple retraction and the presence of nipple discharge, are the signs of breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Breast cancer treatments focus on destroying abnormal tissue formation in the breast. Specifically, it aims to eradicate the tumor from the breast and lymph nodes, preventing metastasis (Waks & Winer, 2019). Nonmetastatic cancer can be treated via surgical resection, removal of lymph nodes, and postoperative radiation treatment (Waks & Winer, 2019). Additional treatment choices include chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Symptoms of cancer are relieved primarily by various pharmacological interventions. Meanwhile, metastatic cancer can be treated with immunotherapy and gene therapy (Al-Mahmood et al., 2018). However, these treatments are intended primarily to alleviate symptoms and prolong life.

Diagnostic Procedures

Several procedures can be utilized in order to diagnose breast cancer. The presence of a mass in the breast tissue can also be confirmed by palpation. Imaging techniques such as screening mammography, breast ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be employed to diagnose cancer (Waks & Winer, 2019). Furthermore, imaging tests can be supplemented by the biopsy of the abnormal tissue (Waks & Winer, 2019). The implementation of these diagnostic procedures can result in a conclusive breast cancer diagnosis.

Breast Cancer Statistics

Vital statistics to consider when discussing breast cancer are the prevalence of the disease and the lifetime risk of developing it. Breast cancer is the second most diagnosed type of cancer worldwide and the most diagnosed in women (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). It should be noted that the incidence of breast cancer in Northern America is at a rate of 92 cases per 100,000 persons (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). Furthermore, it is estimated that every woman in the United States is at a 12% risk of developing this type of cancer (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). These statistics help understand the predominance of breast cancer and the necessity for efficient diagnostic procedures and new treatments.


In summary, breast cancer is one of the most widespread cancers worldwide, and it is caused primarily by hereditary factors. It presents through changes and pain in breasts, nipples, and armpits and can be diagnosed via imaging techniques and biopsy. Several treatment options, including surgical removal of cancerous tissues, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, are available to breast cancer patients. Current research aims to improve diagnostic procedures and treatment options to improve health outcomes in the female population.


Al-Mahmood, S., Sapiezynski, J., Garbuzenko, O. B., & Minko, T. (2018). Metastatic and triple-negative breast cancer: Challenges and treatment options. Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 8(5), 1483–1507.

Ikhuoria, E. B., & Bach, C. (2018). Introduction to breast carcinogenesis – Symptoms, risks factors, treatment and management. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, 3(7), 58–66. Web.

Momenimovahed, Z., & Salehiniya, H. (2019). Epidemiological characteristics of and risk factors for breast cancer in the world. Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy, 11, 151–164.

National Cancer Institute. (2022). Advances in breast cancer research.

Waks, A. G., & Winer, E. P. (2019). Breast cancer treatment: A review. JAMA, 321(3), 288–300.

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NursingBird. (2023, March 30). Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment. Retrieved from


NursingBird. (2023, March 30). Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment.

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"Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment." NursingBird, 30 Mar. 2023,


NursingBird. (2023) 'Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment'. 30 March.


NursingBird. 2023. "Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment." March 30, 2023.

1. NursingBird. "Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment." March 30, 2023.


NursingBird. "Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment." March 30, 2023.