Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

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Background

There are many issues in the modern environment that have an adverse impact on people’s health and lifestyle. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene remains one of the most popular elements in the scientific research society as it might lead to the problem of breast cancer (Gonzales, Yu, & Shiao, 2017).

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Problem Statement

The main problem of the discussed research sphere is the fact that the polluted environment (including water bodies, atmosphere, soil, and livestock) and polymorphism-mutation risks significantly influence the rate of longevity on Earth.

Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

Purpose of the Project

According to Gonzales et al. (2017), the central purpose of the meta-prediction study is to examine the polymorphism-mutation risk types and subtypes of MTHFR and air pollution as to the subject of materials that lead to the breast cancer.

Research Question

The primary question of the given study is intended to identify whether different mutations that might lead to breast cancer in women are dependent or somehow related to the factor of the polluted atmosphere or not (Gonzales et al., 2017).

Hypothesis

Women might face the disease of breast cancer due to such factors as the pollution of the environment and MTHFR gene polymorphism-mutations. It would be proper to mention that the issues mentioned above can also become the reasons for cancer in other parts of the human body (Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group, 2015).

Methodology

The study is considered to be qualitative as it evaluates only credible information developed by multiple scholars in the form of evidence-based conclusions (Gonzales et al., 2017).

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Steps in implementing the project:

  • Using a recursive partition tree for the purposes of triangulation in meta-predictive analyses.
  • Using nonlinear association curve fit.
  • Using heat maps to visualize the acquired data
  • Conventional comparison procedure
  • Pooled analyses

Limitations

The main limitation of the study is the lack of patients with the problem of breast cancer who have a desire to contribute to the research (Hystad, Villeneuve, Goldberg, Crouse, & Johnson, 2015). On the one hand, the small number participants proves that the health issue had not diffused yet. On the other hand, the planned experiments that are intended to prevent similar outcomes cannot be organized properly.

Results

Approximately thirty-three thousand people participated in this study. The research was conducted at the international level (Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group, 2015). Therefore, eighty-two studies were performed by scholars from different countries. The problem of breast cancer is prevalent in the territories of the Middle East and Europe. As stated by Gonzales et al. (2017), “the geographic information system maps further revealed that MTHFR 677 TT mutations yielded a higher risk of breast cancer for Australia, East Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, Morocco, and the Americas and that MTHFR 1298 CC mutations yielded a higher risk in Asia, the Middle East, South Europe, and South America” (p. 157).

Conclusion

Recently, the problem of breast cancer has become more significant and prevalent all over the world. There is a hypothesis that people suffer from this disease due to the air pollution and thick smog in industrial cities and the development of MTHFR gene that influences polymorphism-mutations. The scholars from the planet’s most developed countries performed local research to prove or refute the given theory. As expected, the potential danger was detected. Nowadays, medical workers are organizing various preventative methods to avoid the breast cancer diffusion.

References

Gonzales, M. C., Yu, P., & Shiao, S. P. (2017). MTHFR gene polymorphism-mutations and air pollution as risk factors for breast cancer. Nursing Research, 66(2), 152-163. Web.

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Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. (2015). Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: Patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials. The Lancet, 386(10001), 1341-1352. Web.

Hystad, P., Villeneuve, P. J., Goldberg, M. S., Crouse, D. L., & Johnson, K. (2015). Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of developing breast cancer among women in eight Canadian provinces: A case–control study. Environment International, 74(1), 240-248. Web.

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NursingBird. (2022, August 10). Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Retrieved from https://nursingbird.com/polymorphism-mutations-and-air-pollution-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer/

Reference

NursingBird. (2022, August 10). Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. https://nursingbird.com/polymorphism-mutations-and-air-pollution-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer/

Work Cited

"Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer." NursingBird, 10 Aug. 2022, nursingbird.com/polymorphism-mutations-and-air-pollution-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer/.

References

NursingBird. (2022) 'Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer'. 10 August.

References

NursingBird. 2022. "Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer." August 10, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/polymorphism-mutations-and-air-pollution-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer/.

1. NursingBird. "Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer." August 10, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/polymorphism-mutations-and-air-pollution-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer/.


Bibliography


NursingBird. "Polymorphism-Mutations and Air Pollution as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer." August 10, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/polymorphism-mutations-and-air-pollution-as-risk-factors-for-breast-cancer/.