Treatment of Patient: Risk of Diabetes and Hypertension

Introduction/Identification

Findings

  • A moderate risk of diabetes
  • A history of diabetes in older relatives
  • Insufficient physical activity of the patient
  • The patient reports unhealthy sleep
  • The patient reports constant discomfort

The patient is at risk of diabetes and hypertension. There is a need for a healthy diet. Weight loss and physical activity can reduce the risks. The attention is to be paid to the intake of healthy and unhealthy food.

Findings and the Health Risk

  • The inappropriate diet increases the risks of obesity
  • Obesity increases the risks of diabetes
  • Low physical activity contributes to obesity
  • History of diabetes in patient’s family
  • The risk of a weight gain

The participant is placed at increased risk of developing diabetes due to numerous reasons. The latter include the family history and low motion activity. The patient needs to change his diet. Possible weight gain increases the risk even more.

Short-Term Goals

  • Have a conversation with the patient
  • Analyze the specific taste preferences
  • Develop a plan of intervention
  • Find the materials to be used
  • Provide the patient with the relevant literature

As for short-term goals, additional information about the patient is to be retrieved. The educational materials are to be selected. A plan of intervention is to be developed with the use of literature.

Long-Term Goals

  • Design an effective healthy diet
  • Ensure that the patient keeps to it
  • Encourage weight loss
  • Reduce the daily intake of saturated fats
  • Enhance the well-being of the patient

The specialist is to design a healthy and balanced diet. The patient is to be encouraged to follow all recommendations. As it follows from genetic history, the intake of saturated fats is to be reduced. The general goal is to enhance patients’ quality of life and reduce the risk of diabetes.

Intervention

The Diet

  • Reduce the intake of carbohydrates (Feinman et al., 2015)
  • Increase the intake of fruit and vegetables
  • Limit the consumption of sweet stuff
  • The patient is to eat small portions
  • Consume products reducing blood glucose level

The discussed principles are to reduce the risks f diabetes and hypertension for the patient. The products reducing blood glucose include sour cabbage, avocado, and branching cabbage. The consumption of sweets is to be reduced. The latter is to be substituted by sweet fruits. The patient should eat in small portions 5-6 times a day.

Rationale

  • A healthy diet prevents type II diabetes
  • Weight management is critical for diabetes prevention
  • Polyunsaturated fats are good at reducing cholesterol
  • Saturated fats contribute to the development of diabetes
  • Fiber-rich products like vegetables help to prevent diabetes

According to HP 2020 objectives, a healthy diet is a basic measure to prevent diabetes (“Diabetes prevention,” 2016). The idea is confirmed in the study by Ley, Hamdy, Mohan, and Hu (2014). Reducing the intake of saturated fats is also an effective measure (Aguiar, Morgan, Collins, Plotnikoff, & Callister, 2014). Therefore, the effectiveness of the proposed intervention is confirmed by the academic community.

Evaluation

Method 1

  • The patient is to keep track of his weight
  • Weekly weight measurements in the healthcare setting
  • Weight measurements on an empty stomach
  • Make a chart indicating weight changes
  • The patient is weighed wearing the same clothes

Keeping track of the weight is a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. To prevent mistakes, the patient should wear the same clothes during the procedure. Also, it should not be done after meals. To organize the results, a table or a chart is to be completed.

Method 2

  • Blood glucose level needs to be measured
  • An effective diet normalizes blood glucose level
  • Measurements are to be taken twice a month
  • The patient is to track his general condition
  • The patient’s hands should be dry

It is common knowledge that a good diet normalizes blood sugar. The patient’s blood sugar level is to be measured once a fortnight to evaluate the diet’s effectiveness. The patient should learn more about the procedure. He should also inform a specialist in case of problems.

The Outcomes

  • The patient is more energetic and cheerful
  • The patient’s weight is perfect for his body type
  • The blood sugar level is normal
  • Patient reports improved the general condition
  • The patient demonstrates increased physical activity

The intervention is expected to have a positive impact on the patient’s weight. It should also improve the general well-being of a patient. Physical activity is expected to increase due to a balanced ratio. The perfect weight for the patient is to be measured based on his body type and height.

Additional Steps

  • Check if the recommendations were followed
  • Substitute some products with similar ones
  • Check if there is unobvious product intolerance
  • Make the diet less rigid
  • Analyze the food diary of the patient

If there are no results, a range of measures is to be taken. First, ensure that all recommendations are understood properly. Some products may need to be excluded or due to unexpected reactions. Certain breaks may need to be introduced.

Summary

  • The diet reduces the risk of diabetes
  • Outcomes will be measured in two ways
  • The patient’s weight is to be controlled
  • The blood sugar level is to be measured
  • Reevaluate the diet in case of failure

The risk of diabetes is to be reduced with the help of a diet. To evaluate the effectiveness, keep track of BMI and blood sugar level. If there are no results, the diet is to be assessed one more time. A food diary can be used for this purpose.

References

Aguiar, E. J., Morgan, P. J., Collins, C. E., Plotnikoff, R. C., & Callister, R. (2014). Efficacy of interventions that include diet, aerobic and resistance training components for type 2 diabetes prevention: A systematic review with meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 2.

Diabetes prevention: Interventions engaging community health workers. (2016). Web.

Feinman, R. D., Pogozelski, W. K., Astrup, A., Bernstein, R. K., Fine, E. J., Westman, E. C., & Nielsen, J. V. (2015). Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base. Nutrition, 31(1), 1-13.

Ley, S. H., Hamdy, O., Mohan, V., & Hu, F. B. (2014). Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Dietary components and nutritional strategies. The Lancet, 383(9933), 1999-2007.