Sexual Transition Disease in Adolescents

Problem Statement

  • an increasing number of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs);
  • age group: from 14 to 24 years old;
  • distribution: 19 million cases in the US annually;
  • determinants: social (racial and ethnic disparities);
  • deterrents: abstinence, sex education, use of condoms;

Unprotected sexual contacts are life-threatening to adolescents. Sex education and promotion of protective means should be provided to those who become sexually active (Geisler, 2015).

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Literature Review Findings 1

  • adolescents: 25% of the sexually experienced population;
  • 47%: having had sex under 18;
  • 34%: not using condoms;
  • 14%: having had over 5 partners;
  • 15%: having regular checks.

Although the majority of sexually active teens use condoms, this does not ensure total protection from STDs. A lot of them are sexually active in school and have had over 5 partners by 20 (Geisler, 2015).

Literature Review Findings 2

  • 22%: having been tested for HIV;
  • 10,000: diagnosed with HIV in 2014;
  • 72% of HIV infections: gay men of 13-24;
  • 25%: having HIV being under 18;
  • the equal distribution between boys and girls.

The majority of HIV cases are found in bisexual and gay adolescents. The distribution of the infected by gender is mostly equal (Idele et al., 2014).

Literature Review Findings 3

  • 3.3% chlamydia-positive teen-girls and 0.8% boys;
  • 2015: 521.2 gonorrhea cases per 100,000 in girls;
  • 239 cases per 100,000 in boys;
  • 2.3 syphilis cases per 100,000 in girls;
  • 2.3 cases per 100,000 in boys.

The most wide-spread besides HIV include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. While the first and the second ones are prevalent in teenage girls, syphilis is more common with boys (Workowski & Bolan, 2015).

Literature Review Findings 4

  • the US: the highest rate of STDs in the developed world;
  • 1 in 4 teens suffering from STDs;
  • 42% of girls discuss STDs with parents;
  • 26% of boys discuss STDs;
  • sexual education is not widespread.

It is not common to discuss the problem with parents or doctors. Neither is the problem addressed by schools (Murray et al., 2014).

Community Resources

  • JESCA Pregnancy Prevention Program;
  • Family Planning in Miami Dade County;
  • First Choice Women center;
  • Emergency Contraception Hotline;
  • The Children’s Hope Miami, Inc.

Miami offers numerous community programs. Most of them are aimed at troubled teens.

Resource Summary

  • STDs free screening;
  • early pregnancy support;
  • sex education programs;
  • hotlines providing contraception information;
  • psychological and medical support for the infected.

The effectiveness of the resources for the community is high. Programs decrease STDs by 4-9% annually.

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Selected Group

  • 13-19 year old;
  • studying in schools;
  • being sexually active;
  • not being screened for STDs;
  • having no sexual education.

The selected group consists of 13-19 school students. The focus is on those who are sexually active.

Learner needs

  • contraception information;
  • screening information;
  • STDs’ classification information;
  • community services information;
  • statistical information.

Students must know the statistics of STDs’ occurrence to be convinced to undergo screenings. They also need to know what support they can receive.

Reasons to be Educated

  • being aware of dangers;
  • avoiding unprotected intercourse;
  • realizing screening needs;
  • knowing community support options;
  • developing trust in doctors and parents.

The major problem to be solved by education is the lack of information. Second, it should make teenagers more open with their parents.

Teaching Style

  • a hybrid or blended style;
  • an integrated teaching approach;
  • uniting teacher’s personality with students’ needs;
  • featuring increased flexibility;
  • allowing to find a personalized approach.

Since all students demonstrated different attitudes to the problem, this style was the most appropriate.

Teaching Theory

  • behavioral teaching theory;
  • trying to understand behavior;
  • trying to influence behavior;
  • linking it to the unconscious;
  • preventing negative responses.

Behaviorism presupposes that learners’ conduct can be influenced by negative and positive incentives. This leads to changes in the observable conduct.

Reasons for Selection

  • impacting the subconscious;
  • finding reasons for negative responses;
  • achieving desired behaviors;
  • winning trust;
  • improving self-confidence.

Behavior theories imply establishing a close connection to students. That allows changing their conduct without forcing them into it.

Planning Process

  • collect information and STDs statistics;
  • prepare teaching and learning materials;
  • assess local schools’ sexual education;
  • organize classes;
  • assess educational outcomes.

It is important to have a holistic picture of the problem. A teacher must be able to answer all students’ questions.

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Teaching Goals

  • to increase awareness about STDs;
  • to provide necessary support;
  • to convince students to undergo examinations;
  • to clarify contraception issues;
  • to prevent new cases of STDs.

Students must come out with appropriate conclusions about STDs. This is supposed to prevent new cases of infection.

Audience reaction

  • embarrassment;
  • reluctance to interact;
  • indifference;
  • interest;
  • involvement.

The audience’s range of reactions was different. It started from shyness and unwillingness and progressed to active participation.

Interaction

  • different for different ages;
  • determined by the level of understanding;
  • more active with girls;
  • difficulties with boys;
  • little feedback.

Older teens demonstrated higher involvement. Girls were more eager to discuss the problem.

Teaching Experience

  • generally positive;
  • highly educational;
  • increased my knowledge of the problem;
  • taught me to get into contact with teens;
  • increased my knowledge of teaching theories.

Teaching on the topic increased my awareness of STDs. Moreover, I learned how to communicate health issues to adolescents.

Positives

  • support of colleagues;
  • new theoretical knowledge;
  • achieving understanding;
  • prompting discussion;
  • reaching proper outcomes.

Negatives

  • lack of school authorities’ support;
  • lack of understanding with younger students;
  • too little time for proper education;
  • inability to guide screening;
  • inability to assess practical results.

What to Change

  • developed a more detailed plan;
  • separate students of different age groups;
  • separate boys from girls;
  • collect more statistical data;
  • ensure practical follow-up.

References

Geisler, W. M. (2015). Diagnosis and management of uncomplicated chlamydia trachomatis infections in adolescents and adults: Summary of evidence reviewed for the 2015 centers for disease control and prevention sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(8), S774-S784.

Idele, P., Gillespie, A., Porth, T., Suzuki, C., Mahy, M., Kasedde, S., & Luo, C. (2014). Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among adolescents: Current status, inequities, and data gaps. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 66(1), S144-S153.

Murray, P. J., Braverman, P. K., Adelman, W. P., Breuner, C. C., Levine, D. A., Marcell, A. V.,… Burstein, G. R. (2014). Screening for nonviral sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults. Pediatrics, 134(1), e302-e311.

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Workowski, K. A., & Bolan, G. A. (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines (2015). Reproductive Endocrinology, 5(24), 51-56.

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