Type 2 diabetes is a disorder commonly caused by blood sugar imbalance in the body when insulin hormone becomes defective. It mainly results from lifestyle implications such as poor dieting and lack of exercise. As such the elderly are more affected due to increased insulin resistance and inactivity.
- Reduced physical works and eating disorders
- Alteration of hormone production from the endocrine gland.
- Altered functioning of the pancreatic cells.
- Increase of insulin levels every decade
- The high blood sugar level in the body
As one age, the endocrine system deteriorates naturally leading to various disorders in the body such as diabetes mellitus. As such, the production of hormones from the endocrine gland is altered thus affecting the functioning of that hormone on the target receptor (Eguchi et al, 2017). More deteriorating pancreatic cells lead to the production of more glucose in the blood, which triggers more insulin production in the body too. Eventually, type 2 diabetes develops when the body system mechanism of glucose and insulin fail to be regulated.
- Complex decision-making
- Linked to the higher mortality rate
- Risk for both acute and chronic microvascular and cardiovascular
- Poor adherence to health care
- Deteriorating functional status
Due to deteriorating functional status, elderly people may fail to balance their life and this condition needs a complex attention. Thus, failure to seek proper medication and self-treatment leads to a high mortality rate and exposes them to other disorders in the body (microvascular and cardiovascular).
- Frequent urination and excess thirst
- One’s hunger is triggered in excess
- People lose a lot of weight
- The vision is affected since it is blurred
- One suffers a lot of fatigue
Due to the defective function of insulin in the body, the glucose level becomes unregulated leading to water absorption from blood vessels, which leaves one dehydrated and thirsty. Secondly, hunger increases due to inadequate glucose needed for the normal functioning of the body cells (Zheng et al, 2018). Hunger develops as a result of the body trying to source more energy for the normal functioning of the body. In addition, one loses weight as the fats and muscles are burnt in search of more energy.
Nursing Management for Type 2 Diabetes
- Metformin can be used as the first medication
- Sulfonylurea to control insulin on the body
- Advising a patient about a diet
- Taking a patient through exercise
- Frequent monitoring levels of glucose
Elderly people are known to be less active and are not able to eat various types of food. This makes it quite difficult to control the glucose level in the blood. However, for those who are elderly and institutionalized is easier to manage them through providing or recommending good and balanced diets as well as friendly exercises to ensure that appropriate weight is maintained. The diet is supposed to have much more fiber and less refined foods (Zheng et al, 2018). Secondly, the patients should undergo regular measuring to check the glucose level by using electronic systems (Van den Arend et al, 2019). More so, medications should be used to control the sugar levels at points when the level is uncontrollable. The commonly used medications are metformin and sulfonylurea. However, older people need proper care and attention when monitoring their medication for they easily tend to forget.
Eguchi, Kosei, and Ryozo Nagai. (2017) “Islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes and physiology.” The Journal of clinical investigation.
Van den Arend, I. J. M., Stolk, R. P., Krans, H. M. J., Grobbee, D. E., & Schrijvers, A. J. P. (2019). Management of type 2 diabetes: a challenge for patient and physician. Patient education and counseling, 40(2), 187-194.
Zheng, Yan, Sylvia H. Ley, and Frank B. Hu. (2018) “Global etiology and epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications.” Nature Reviews Endocrinology.