The Nursing Profession Analysis

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Abstract

This paper discusses the use of statistical methods in research. The papers used are Nurses’ Perception of the Quality of Care they provide to Hospitalized Drug Addicts: Testing the Theory of Reasoned Action by Natan, Beyil, and Neta (2009) and the Attitudes and Perceptions towards Men in Nursing Education by Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wu (2010). The researchers used standard statistical methods in relation to many research areas. They managed to draw a conclusion that answered their research questions. Data presentation in the discussed papers was weak. The researchers chose monotonous use of tables. The other areas of the studies are appropriate, with the conclusions made being relevant.

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Introduction

The nursing practice has been shaped by the series of studies whose findings are used as the standard practice in this profession. The care that patients get is based on the research findings that indicate the efficacy of the methods that are currently used. The development of policies in the health sector is also based on numerous studies. Researchers have to fulfill many requirements so that their research is accepted to influence the nursing practice. The credibility of results of any research is a function of the methodology, the testing of hypothesis, and the presentation of results. However, the methodology is the most important section. Researchers formulate relevant objectives based on a prevailing problem. They aim at providing possible solutions to these problems based on their findings.

Many researchers use a sample to represent the population in which the results of the study will be generalized. The analysis of the results from any research needs to follow the laid down rules, with the researcher targeting to answer the research question. The following paper is a statistical assessment of two research reports. The paper examines the use of statistics, methodology, data presentation, and analysis in the reports. The conclusions made in the two reports are also discussed, including how relevant the reports are to the practice of nursing. The reports to be discussed are Nurses’ Perception of the Quality of Care they provide to Hospitalized Drug Addicts: Testing the Theory of Reasoned Action by Natan, Beyil, and Neta (2009) and the Attitudes and Perceptions towards Men in Nursing Education by Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wu (2010).

Review of the Data Analysis

Research Questions

In the first paper by Natan, Beyil, and Neta (2009), the researchers described the absence of studies that show the relationship between the attitude of nurses and the care they accord to drug addicts. They stated that the studies in existence at the time have evaluated the attitudes of nurses on drug addicts, with none evaluating the effects that the attitudes have on the level of care. None of these studies has used the theory of reasoned action. Hence, the researchers thought it was a good theory to try to relate the attitudes of nurses to the level of care they give their addicted patients (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). Therefore, the researchers had the aim of examining the nursing staff members’ attitudes “and subjective norms as conveyed by actual and intended nursing care of drug addicts, using the TRA” (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009, p. 568).

In the second study, the researchers explored the traditionally held belief that nursing is a female career in an effort to find out how this notion affected the male nursing students (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). There is a widely held belief that the nursing profession is for females only. This perception has resulted in a large number of females in the profession, with the male nurses experiencing different treatment options from their female counterparts. Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wuhad (2010, p. 1) had the aim of investigating, comparing, and contrasting “societal perceptions and attitudes towards men in nursing as reported by male and female nursing and non-nursing university students”.

Data Collection/Source

In the first study, the researchers used questionnaires to collect the data that they needed. The study had a hundred and thirty-five nurses participating, having come from the general hospitals in one part of Israel (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). The researchers initially handed out 200 questionnaires to nurses in the institutions that were used for the study. Only the described population of 135 nurses given above answered, with this figure being a response rate of 86% (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). The questionnaires were addressed to nurses in three institutions in Israel. The nurses had to have dealt with addicted patients in the internal medicine departments at the various institutions. Questionnaires were chosen based on their utility in providing the most relevant information in this study, and their ease of administration, and analysis.

In the second paper, the researchers also used questionnaires to collect the data that was later analyzed in the study (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wu (2010) administered their questionnaires to 67 non-nursing students in a number of higher education centers. These questionnaires were also administered to 82 nursing students in the same institutions. These researchers incorporated the Attitude Towards Men in Nursing Scale (ATMINS) in their questionnaires, with the respondents’ attitudes being gauged using this scale (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The questionnaire was chosen for the same reasons as the first research since it was easy to administer and analyze the data obtained.

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Independent and Dependent Variables

An independent variable is constant in a research since it influences the change of other variables (Keller, & Kelvin, 2013). On the other hand, the dependent variable is the variable that is affected by another. Hence, it changes in accordance with the changes in the independent variable (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012). In the first study by Natan, Beyil, and Neta (2009), the researchers sought the relationship between two variables, which were nurses’ attitudes and level of care given. The independent variable was nurses’ attitude while the dependent variable was the level of care given to addicts. In the second research, the sex of nursing staff was the independent variable while the attitude held by other surveyed individuals was the dependent variable (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010).

Sample Size Estimation

Sample size is an important aspect of any research. A small sample size makes the generalization of research findings on a population difficult and inaccurate (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012). On the other hand, a larger sample size of the total population under study is more effective in the provision of credible and more generalizable results (Keller, & Kelvin, 2013). In the first research, the participants were randomly selected. Institutions from where they were selected were also chosen based on their locality. The preferred sample size was 135. Nurses in the sample were selected based on their participation in the management of drug addicts in their respective institutions (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). The sample size estimation method is not provided in the research report. Researchers only provide the demographic information of the participants. Such information consists of 85.9% females and 14.1% males (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). The sample size was large and appropriate to allow valid conclusions to me made from it.

In the second study, the researchers used a non-randomized convenience sample. The sample consisted of students undertaking their undergraduate studies in Ontario, Canada (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The number of participants in the study consisted of 149 students who were made up of 67 non-nursing students and 82 nursing students in the institutions that were analyzed (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The sample selection method used was appropriate. The results of the study can be trusted to be authentic and reliable (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012). The results can be generalized to the broad population. Both studies did not conduct a power analysis of their sample size. Therefore, they could not prove that the sample was adequate or relevant to the respective studies.

Statistic to Measure Hypothesis

The statistic used to measure the hypothesis varies in each research. The strength of the data produced by the research can be determined using the appropriate statistic (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012). The hypotheses are then tested using the test statistic. The findings are then used to make a conclusion that the researchers were seeking concerning the problem under scrutiny (Keller, & Kelvin, 2013). In the first research, the researchers used the mean and standard deviation to describe the data on each study variable (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009, p. 569). The researchers then calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient and performed regression analyses on the data obtained (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009, p. 569). The correlation studies, the mean, and SD of the population that participated in the study were analyzed to evaluate the attitude of nursing towards care of addicted individuals. According to Natan, Beyil, and Neta (2009, p. 569), “A negative correlation was found between nurses’ level of stereotypes concerning drug addicts and nurses’ actual behavior (r = -0.32, P < 0.01)”. The researchers met their assumptions in this study. The method of hypothesis testing that they applied was also relevant to their study.

In the second study, Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wu (2010, p. 2) analyzed the data they obtained using the “Statistical Package for Social Science computer software”. They also described the results using descriptive statistics such as the mean, SD, range, and percentages in relation to the demographic characteristics of their respondents and the responses that they got (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The researchers stated that they performed analysis of variance with the value of P being less than 0.05, which was considered significant (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The assumptions in this research were also met. The methods used in the analysis of data were significant and useful.

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Data Display

The method used to display data in the presentation of the research findings provides an effective means of the researcher communicating with the audience (Keller, & Kelvin, 2013). A well-presented research is appealing to the readers and people going through the research findings. It also makes it easier for them to understand the basis of the research (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012). On the other hand, poorly presented research findings are unappealing to the audience. They make an otherwise credible research appear less detailed and difficult to comprehend (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012).

In the first research, the researchers used tables to present their findings and the demographic characteristics of their sample (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). The researchers used three tables to represent the distribution of subjective norms for patients using drugs, the correlations, and the regression analysis (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009, p. 571). The use of tables is an appropriate method to display the results from the research. Tables provided the researchers with an appealing method of presenting their data. The tables are easy to deduce the various intended differences. However, the researchers should have used other methods of data presentation in addition to the use of tables, with examples being graphs and charts.

In the second research, Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wu (2010) demonstrated a better method of data presentation. These researchers also used tables to represent the values gotten for the various factors under investigation. These tables are well labeled and appealing to the audience (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The researchers also utilized diagrams to present information that they obtained, hence presenting an effective method of data presentation. The use of these methods of data presentation breaks the monotony of using plain text in the research. Besides, it provides the reader with effective ways of drawing conclusions and visually appreciating the main message in the research (Keller, & Kelvin, 2013).

Data Analysis Evaluation

The conclusions made in any research are a product of the strength of the methods used, the quality of the data collected, and the methods used in the analysis (Plichta, & Kelvin, 2012). In the first research by Natan, Beyil and Neta, the attitude of nurses on the drug addicts in their care and the relationship between this attitude and the level of care were evaluated. The researchers inferred that caregivers have unconstructive labels of the drug addicts. They also believed that the management of patients who were addicts was difficult (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). These conclusions were credible. The research answered the main question that it had set out to investigate. The methodology used in the research and the data analysis enhanced conclusion making. Since the two were credible, they could also make the conclusions credible.

In the second research, the researchers evaluated the attitude held by students in nursing and other courses on the practice of nursing by men. They concluded that the general perceptions of people in the population of Canada that they surveyed and those of the general population are that nursing is mainly for women, with men having little role to play if any (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The conclusion was credible enough since the methods used in the study were appropriate and satisfactory to sustain this conclusion. The objectives of the study were realized. The researchers managed to answer the questions that they had listed. It would be possible to agree with the research findings of both studies since the methods that they utilized were scientific, with the conclusions supporting the existing literature findings.

Study Limitations

People conducting any research face a series of limitations. The results of the study depend on how well they are able to respond to these limitations (Keller, & Kelvin, 2013). The researchers in the papers described above must have encountered some difficulties in their studies. Their conclusions were only possible based on their methods of overcoming the limitations. In the first research, Natan, Beyil, and Neta state several limitations to the study that they conducted. The major limitation that they encountered is the dependent variable that they were dealing with since this variable (the self-report of nurses’ behavior) was hard to assess, with the nurses reporting that they cared for the addicted patients and give them adequate care contrary to the literature findings (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009).

The researchers state that the respondents were not able to report their incapacity to offer standard care to patients whom they considered addicts due to the moral obligation that the nurses had over their patients. However, they applied an assessment scale that provided the attitude of nurses towards addicted patients, with this strategy offering an accurate way of assessing their behavior (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). In the second research, the researchers did not state the challenges that they encountered in the course of their study. They discussed the research findings without mentioning some of the limitations that they had to undergo.

In this second research, the researchers must have encountered the same problems as the first study since the variable that they were testing was dependent on the attitude held by the nursing students and other students that participated in the study. The limitations must have been overcome in the study since the researchers were able to give their research findings that provided an accurate conclusion that matched with other related literature findings (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010, p. 6).

Overall Methods Evaluation

The overall method evaluation for the first paper reveals a work that is professionally done and with valid conclusions. The researchers were able to use valid methods of data collection, analysis, presentation, and interpretation to make the conclusions, which were also credible. The different characteristics in the study were evaluated, with the researchers making an in-depth analysis of the data they obtained. In the personal analysis of the research that was carried out, the part that was most well done is the data analysis. The researchers used a unique method of analyzing the data that was suited to the variables that they were correlating in their study (Natan, Beyil, & Neta, 2009). The data presentation was the worst done in this paper, with the researchers only using one method of data presentation.

In the second paper, Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, and Wu also used appropriate methods of data collection, analysis, presentation, and interpretation. They managed to make conclusions out of the set of data that they obtained. These conclusions were related to the studies done in the same field and those in other areas of study. Because of the appropriate methods applied in the research, the conclusions were valid, with a personal assessment showing that they could be used to make recommendations as done in this report (Bartfay, Bartfay, Clow, & Wu, 2010). The best-done section was the methodology part, with the worst being the presentation of data that applied only the use of tables. However, the research is representative of the total population. Hence, the findings can be generalized.

Understanding the Data

The studies described above hold significance to the practice of nursing. The personal peers will be affected if they consider the results and conclusions made. The research by Natan, Beyil, and Neta is useful to nursing students in that the attitude they hold concerning the drug addicts in their care influences the care they give to these patients. The negative attitude that was found in the nurses that participated in the study inhibits the discharge of services to the affected patients. In turn, these patients are less likely to improve on the conditions that these nurses provide. Therefore, the peers may hold a positive attitude towards the patients under their care. This move will make them better professionals. One thing that the peers might find confusing is the finding that the research reports. The researchers report that they had a problem with the independent variable, yet they proceeded to get the results in the research. They might also question the data collection methods that are not clearly explained in the paper.

In the second research, the researchers provide conclusions that were also useful for the nursing peers. The findings indicate that the general opinion or attitude of people is that nursing is a female dominated profession and that male nurses are better in relation to female nurses. The peers will relate to this finding since most of them are females with few male students who are perusing nursing in the institution. The recommendations will also compel them to change their mentality of the nursing profession and the female dominance. One thing that they might find confusing is the collection of data from non-nursing students with reference to how this strategy may have affected the results. They might also question the methods of presentations used.

Conclusion

The two studies described are good examples of the application of statistical methods in scientific studies. These studies are important in influencing the practice of nursing and the change in the policies that are investigated. The researchers managed to establish a research gap that they were able to address. Both studies evaluated the existing literature to assess the available knowledge in their respective topics, which further described the existing gaps in the literature. The methods of sampling used by the researchers are appropriate since they are able to use the sample population to establish the factors that are under investigation. The sample populations used in both studies were relevant since they had the characteristics that qualified them for participation in the studies.

The second research is also relevant to the practice of nursing. The researchers were able to apply the research statistics to make the relevant conclusions. They found that the attitude that is generally held by nurses against drug addicts in their care is often an influence to the quality of management that they give to these patients. These findings are in line with other findings by previous studies. The nurses’ attitude should be influenced by their training. They need to be trained to handle drug addicts such as the ones that are discussed in the study. The research findings in these two papers are adequate. Therefore, the conclusions made are valid. They can be used to influence the respective areas into which the researchers ventured.

Reference List

Bartfay, W., Bartfay, E., Clow, K., & Wu, T. (2010). Attitudes and Perceptions Towards Men in Nursing Education. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 8(2), 1-7.

Keller, P., & Kelvin, A. (2013). Munro’s statistical methods for health care research. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Natan, M., Beyil, V., & Neta, O. (2009). Nurses’ perception of the quality of care they provide to hospitalized drug addicts: Testing the Theory of Reasoned Action. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 15(1), 566–573.

Plichta, B., & Kelvin, A. (2012). Munro’s statistical methods for health care research. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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NursingBird. (2022, July 7). The Nursing Profession Analysis. Retrieved from https://nursingbird.com/the-nursing-profession-analysis/

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"The Nursing Profession Analysis." NursingBird, 7 July 2022, nursingbird.com/the-nursing-profession-analysis/.

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NursingBird. (2022) 'The Nursing Profession Analysis'. 7 July.

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NursingBird. 2022. "The Nursing Profession Analysis." July 7, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/the-nursing-profession-analysis/.

1. NursingBird. "The Nursing Profession Analysis." July 7, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/the-nursing-profession-analysis/.


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NursingBird. "The Nursing Profession Analysis." July 7, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/the-nursing-profession-analysis/.