Before formulating a task or problem, generalized information about the patient and the illness, including a set of symptoms, signs, test results, data on the history of the disease, and the patient’s life, needs to be accumulated. It is also necessary to determine the patient’s capabilities and collect other information about the disease and possible outcomes. The PICO use helps develop a specific and substantial question that makes it easier to find evidence and the information that medical professionals need. By using this method, specialists can avoid the appearance of unnecessary information and its inclusion in the study, as this can distort the results and make them dysfunctional.
Since the study aims to identify evidence that regular exercise will help prevent falls in a given elderly community, an intervention type of PICOT question was chosen. This type of question aims to determine the type of treatment that will lead to the best results. Any PICOT question must have four concepts or components that help in the determination of appropriate decisions. Thus, the question should take into account such aspects as who is the patient suffering from the problem, what action or treatment will be under consideration and the interventions that will be considered (Lira & Rocha, 2019). It is also necessary to specify the desired or expected result of the study. If there is a time frame, the time it will take to achieve the desired result can also be specified.
“In elderly patients who often go to the ambulance, is there evidence that suggests that regular exercise compared to the lack of ones impacts the reduction of falls and emergency room visits?” In this question, “P” is the elderly population of the community, and “I” is the problem of frequent falls, which make up a third of all hospital visits. “C” is a way to solve the problem of preventing these falls with limited available resources, with the help of special exercises. “A” is a decrease in emergency calls in the area.
When constructing the question, I missed such words as “disease” and “complications” when describing the problem. In my opinion, these words are too extensive when constructing a question. Also, we are talking about the elderly population, which suffers from many “complications” that have various causes. The problem of falls is presented as the main one, so there should be a particular emphasis on it. Moreover, the fact that calls that occur because of them usually do not receive the necessary intervention. If the patient is not transported to the hospital due to an injury and then often nothing else is done, it indicates the need to mention a specific problem.
It was also necessary to clarify the nature of the exercises chosen as a way to solve the problem. The meaning of “regular” exercise is significantly different from just exercise or “physical” exercise. Physical activity is necessary for older people to maintain muscle flexibility and strengthen joints and the cardiovascular system (Ribeiro et al., 2017). Only the consistent implementation of particular actions for the development of the physical health of the elderly can be an effective solution that contributes to the development of the physical health of the elderly.
The value of research is determined by the integrity of solving correct and considered questions. The use of the PICOT question in the formation of the work goal leads to the achievement of better and more effective results. Analysis and thorough research contribute to the identification of individual characteristics of the patient, the diagnosis of the disease, the selection of rational treatment, monitoring of the course of the disease, and determining the prognosis.
Lira, R. P. C., & Rocha, E. M. (2019). PICOT: Imprescriptible items in a clinical research question. Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia, 82(2).
Ribeiro, C. G., Ferretti, F., & Sá, C. A. D. (2017). Quality of life based on level of physical activity among elderly residents of urban and rural areas. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 20(3), 330-339.