Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has become a cause of numerous deaths worldwide. To minimize the risk and improve medical care, cases and outcomes are thoroughly analyzed. Despite this fact, the correlation between ethnicity and potential risks has not been studied. In this regard, the objective of the cohort study was to investigate whether ethnicity influenced case fatality rates to adjust risk factors (Kabarriti R., Brodin N., Maron M., 2021).

The researchers provided a retrospective analysis on patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses who received care at the Montefiore Medical Center in New York. The study was conducted with the consideration of current research on hospitalized patients’ characteristics, disparities in outcomes, and information from COVID-19 trackers. Researchers used electronic medical records of the 5902 patients admitted at the medical center in Bronx between March 14 and April 15, 2020, and tested positive for COVID-19 throughout the research (Kabarriti et. al., 2021).

X2 tests were implemented to study correlations between demographic properties, ethnicity, and fatality rates. The study considered all in-hospital and in-house deaths, and Cox-regression analyses were introduced to investigate comorbidity risks concerning race. The research has gained the approval of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and meets STROBE requirements for cohort studies.

The results showed that among reporting patients, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic constituted the largest group with the highest fatality rates ((39.5%) and (34.3%)) and lowered SES compared to non-Hispanic White subjects with a lower number of comorbidities (28.9%) and higher SES. Yet, after taking into account the age of the patients and other variables, it was reported that subjects identified as non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic had improved survival rates. The extensive research showed that severe risks of a fatality outcome were attributed to cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, obesity, dementia, and diabetes (Kabarriti et. al., 2021).

The research was conducted under the limitations of electronic medical records. Moreover, the study did not involve assessing access to medical care and differences in the positive status of COVID-19. Under the given limitations, the findings suggested that ethnic differentials in fatality rates might be eliminated with equally available advanced health environments. The most prominent risk remained the variables of age, obesity, and chronicle diseases.

Prevalence of Mental Illness and Mental Health Care Use among Police Officers

Law enforcement is associated with added pressure and stressful situations. Yet, insufficient research has been conducted on mental health care for police officers. In this regard, the objectives of the paper were to investigate prevailing diagnoses and symptoms, profiles of police officers seeking care, and the application of mental care for law enforcers. The survey analyzed 434 law enforcers from a police department in Dallas-Fort Worth. The study was conducted with the consideration of current researches on physical evidence of stress, PTSD symptoms, impacts of killing and injuring others, major depressive disorders, and barriers to care (Jetelina et. al., 2020).

The survey attested to the AAPOR guideline, and all participants provided written consent for participation. Logistic regression analyses, as well as deductive and inductive thematic identifications, were implemented to measure the use of mental health care in connection with identified diagnoses. The subjects were screened for depression, PTSD, anxiety, suicide ideation, and self-harm. The results showed, 54 law enforcers (12%) were diagnosed with a lifetime mental disease, and 114 policemen (26%) suffered from the current illness (Jetelina et. al., 2020). Five focus groups had been operated to identify barriers to care, and four significant obstacles were recognized:

  • inability to attest a mental illness;
  • wariness about confidentiality;
  • concerns about specialists being able to provide care relevant for their occupation;
  • the misplaced belief of law enforcers with mental illness being unfit for work.

The survey was conducted under the limitations of one police department and, subsequently, a reduced number of subjects. The findings did not contradict past researches. The survey emphasized that lack of social support, burnout, work overload, and combat experience might contribute to arising mental illnesses among law enforcers. The study concluded that subjects were willing to receive care under the conditions of attested confidentiality. Yet, additional researches should be conducted to generate specified care plans accommodating law enforcers’ diagnoses and concerns.

Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Sleep Quality and Fatigue among Post Valvular Heart Surgery Patients

Heart surgeries evoke psychological harms that may deteriorate the quality of life, so various complementing therapies are introduced to increase overall vitality, mainly through sleep quality. The article’s objective was to assess the results of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on sleep quality and fatigue of post-operative patients. The study was conducted concerning past researches on cardiovascular risk factors, complementary therapy, and effects of PMR for other diagnoses (Archana et. al., 2021).

For the survey, experimental and control groups were formed with 33 and 32 subjects, respectively. The researchers undertook a randomized controlled design, and the assessment was conducted before and post surgery after 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. The survey implemented PSQI, Fatigue assessment scale, and activity log sheet. The patients were informed of the course of the procedure and provided their written consent. Gathered data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics.

The studied groups were compatible in their sociodemographic properties, medical records, and level of fatigue. No essential decrease in fatigue and improvement in sleep quality were identified in the second week. A statistically significant reduction of fatigue, as well as an increase in sleep quality, was registered at the six week (Archana et. al., 2021). The findings confirmed the beneficial effect of PRM given the fact that the duration of the treatment became a focal point of its effectiveness. The practice was proven helpful in decreasing anxiety and depression, assisting therapy for insomnia, and coronary artery bypass surgery. The survey results confirmed the advantage of integrating PRM as part of holistic therapy to decrease psychological burden after heart surgeries.


Archana JT., Ankita S., Gopichandran L., Devagourou V., Milind PH., Gauri SK. (2021). Effect of progressive muscle relaxation on sleep quality and fatigue among post valvular heart surgery. Journal of Perioperative & Critical Intensive Care Nursing Patients, 7(162). Web.

Jetelina K., Molsberry R., Gonzalez J., Beauchamp A., Hall T. (2020). Prevalence of mental illness and mental health care use among police officers. JAMA Netw Open, 3(10):e2019658. Web.

Kabarriti R., Brodin N., Maron M. (2020). Association of race and ethnicity with comorbidities and survival among patients with COVID-19 at an urban medical center in New York. JAMA Netw Open, 3(9):e2019795. Web.

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NursingBird. (2023, January 2). Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients. Retrieved from https://nursingbird.com/race-and-survival-link-among-covid-19-patients/


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"Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients." NursingBird, 2 Jan. 2023, nursingbird.com/race-and-survival-link-among-covid-19-patients/.


NursingBird. (2023) 'Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients'. 2 January.


NursingBird. 2023. "Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients." January 2, 2023. https://nursingbird.com/race-and-survival-link-among-covid-19-patients/.

1. NursingBird. "Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients." January 2, 2023. https://nursingbird.com/race-and-survival-link-among-covid-19-patients/.


NursingBird. "Race and Survival Link Among COVID-19 Patients." January 2, 2023. https://nursingbird.com/race-and-survival-link-among-covid-19-patients/.