Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects

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Antimicrobial Chart

Drug Class Bacteria- Method of Action
½ life–dosing interval
Peak levels
Side Effects Excretion Bacterial Spectrum (name bacteria effective against)
static / cidal (renal, hepatic) + / –
Penicillins Bactericidal Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Dosing interval: every 6 hours
Mild nausea, headache, diarrhoea. Renal Gram-positive Gram-positive cocci, rods, anaerobes
Cephalosporins Bactericidal Inhibition of enzymes in the cell wall
Dosing interval: every 12 hours
Nausea, stomach ache, diarrhoea, itching Renal Gram-positive and gram-negative Most effective against gram-positive bacteria (cocci). Somewhat effective against gram-negative ones (colli, aerogenes).
Monobactams Bactericidal Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Dosing interval: every 6-8 hours
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea. Renal Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Carbapenims Bactericidal Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Dosing interval: every 6 hours
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, injection site reaction. Renal Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii
Fluoroquinolones Bactericidal Inhibition of the enzymes involved in the DNA synthesis
Dosing interval: every 12 hours
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dizziness, insomnia. Renal Gram-negative Haemophilus influenza. Moraxella catarrhalis. Mycoplasma species
Macrolides Bacteriostatic Binding the bacterial ribosomal subunit
Dosing interval: once per day
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea. Hepatic Gram-positive Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella
Aminoglycosides Bacteriostatic Binding to the ribosomal decoding site and reducing the fidelity of protein synthesis Kidney injury, vestibular toxicity Renal Broad spectrum Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae
Tetracycline Bacteriostatic Inhibition of the bacterial ribosomal subunit Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea. Renal Broad spectrum chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, protozoan parasites
Glycyclines Bacteriostatic Inhibition of the bacterial ribosomal subunit Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea. Renal Broad spectrum chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, protozoan parasites
Sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim Bacteriostatic Inhibition of the dihydropteroate synthase Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea. Renal Broad spectrum Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Haemophilus influenza (Bonev & Brown, 2019)

Fluoroquinolones represent of the antibacterial medication types used in the contemporary treatment procedures. More specifically, such antibiotics comprise ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. As per their pharmacokinetic mechanism, fluoroquinolones serve to inhibit two enzymes that play a central role in the synthesis of the bacterial DNA. These are the DNA topoisomerases lacking by the human cells, making fluoroquinolones specific bactericidal agents. Another advantage of this particular antibiotic types consists of its oral bioavailability and large distribution volumes. In addition, the use of fluoroquinolones addresses a broad spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial conditions, making a rather comprehensive instrument of treatment. More specifically, the use of such medications eradicates the presence of Haemophilus influenza. Moraxella catarrhalis. Mycoplasma species, and other dangerous bacteria. As such, fluoroquinolones have attained a considerable level of use throughout the system and in a variety of cases.

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On the other hand, the use of fluoroquinolones is associated with certain risks for the patient. The range of side effects varies from nausea and dizziness to tendinopathy and neuropathy. In addition, the widespread of this antibiotic type has created a large number of bacteria resistant to its effect. Thus, at present, fluoroquinolones are reserved for more serious conditions, in which the options are limited. In this scenario, the medication is administered either orally or parenterally, shortly becoming distributed in the extracellular and intracellular fluids of the body. The highest concentration of the agents is attained in prostate, bile, and lungs. Next, the agent inhibits the bacterial DNA replication through the two key enzyme inhibitions. For patients with the normal kidney function, the half-life of the antibiotic remains approximately four hours (Ezelarab et al., 2018). After the effective period, fluoroquinolones are metabolized in the patient’s liver and excreted really with urine.

References

Bonev, B. B. (2019). Bacterial resistance to antibiotics: From molecules to man. Wiley.

Ezelarab, H. A. A., Abbas, S. H., Hassan, H. A., & Abuo-Rahma, G. E. D. A. (2018). Recent updates of fluoroquinolones as antibacterial agents. ArchPharm: Chemistry in Life Sciences, 351(9).

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NursingBird. (2022, August 30). Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects. Retrieved from https://nursingbird.com/discussion-of-treatment-fluoroquinolones-aspects/

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NursingBird. (2022, August 30). Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects. https://nursingbird.com/discussion-of-treatment-fluoroquinolones-aspects/

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"Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects." NursingBird, 30 Aug. 2022, nursingbird.com/discussion-of-treatment-fluoroquinolones-aspects/.

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NursingBird. (2022) 'Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects'. 30 August.

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NursingBird. 2022. "Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects." August 30, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/discussion-of-treatment-fluoroquinolones-aspects/.

1. NursingBird. "Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects." August 30, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/discussion-of-treatment-fluoroquinolones-aspects/.


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NursingBird. "Discussion of Treatment Fluoroquinolones Aspects." August 30, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/discussion-of-treatment-fluoroquinolones-aspects/.