Patient Teaching Plan: Type II Diabetes

Introduction

Important Finding

  • Patient’s father has diabetes
  • Patient’s mother has hypertension
  • Maternal grandmother died of a heart attack
  • Patient has hypertension
  • Patient is overweight
  • Hypertension is common in the family
  • Daughter has type I diabetes

The patient’s genetic history strongly suggests a risk of developing type II diabetes. Hypertension is a common condition among many of its members. The patient’s father also has diabetes, and that adds risk to the development of type II diabetes. Symptoms of hypertension and is overweight, which may lead to the development of type II diabetes. The risk is modifiable however through an intervention.

How It Puts The Patient at Risk

  • Diabetes generations
  • Excess weight
  • Hypertension
  • Occupation is not active
  • Diet is unhealthy

Hypertension, excess weight and the patient’s father having diabetes are all possible causes of type II diabetes development. The disease can severely affect the quality of life of the patient. Therefore, an effort should be made to prevent it. Additional causes may be found through other examinations.

Shot-Term Goals

  • Examine
  • Assess the tests
  • Patient’s risk
  • Educate
  • Begin intervention

While the patient shows symptoms of type two diabetes development, more could be revealed through closer examination. It is important to test the patient and evaluate the tests. They may show that the patient is at a higher risk than previously thought. The patient should be then educated on type II diabetes causes and risk factors. Subsequently, the intervention should begin.

Long-Term Goals

  • Lower weight
  • Active lifestyle
  • Healthy diet
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Reduce risk

In the long-term, the patient should be able to lose weight. To sustain the lower weight, they would require a more active lifestyle. Additionally, a healthy diet should help sustain a less dangerous weight. High blood pressure also needs to be addressed as it can be associated with other conditions. Ultimately, the risk of type II diabetes development should be reduced.

Intervention

Details Of Intervention

  • Reduce weight
  • Develop a diet
  • Develop an exercise regimen
  • Lower pressure
  • Education

The majority of the steps are directed at reducing the weight of the patient and hypertension. Both are common causes of the disease and need to be addressed. This could be done through the introduction of a healthy diet. Another step involves the development of an exercise regimen that the patient could perform in their daily life. Also, the patient should be educated on all aspects of type II diabetes and its prevention.

Support Of The Intervention

  • Diet reduces the risk of diabetes
  • Exercise reduces weight
  • Blood pressure reduces inactive lifestyles
  • Education is important
  • Dietary management is supported

Studies support this intervention in the following ways. Dietary changes are some of the most common interventions. Exercise is in second place among them. The reduction of blood pressure is also recorded as a common effect of lifestyle changes (American Diabetes Association, 2015). The resources of HealthyPeople 2020 support the use of education (“Diabetes Management: Interventions,” 2016) and dietary management (“Diabetes Management: Intensive),” 2016).

Additional Resources For The Patient

  • American Diabetes Association
  • CDC page on diabetes
  • National Institutes of Health diabetes page
  • International Diabetes Federation
  • National Diabetes Education program

Evaluation

Weight

  • Desirable weight
  • Weigh on scales
  • Estimate the needed reduction
  • Weigh periodically
  • Check if the weight was reached

Since the majority of the intervention is aimed at lowering the weight of the person, it can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. At first, the desired weight of the patient needs to be established. Then the patient is weighed on scales. Subsequently, how much weight they need to lose throughout intervention needs to be determined. The patient is then weighed once a month, and weight changes are recorded. At the end of the intervention, the final weight of the patient should be close to the weight determined at the start of the evaluation.

Lab Values

  • Initial cholesterol levels
  • Initial blood sugar levels
  • How the levels need to change
  • Blood sugar levels after intervention
  • Cholesterol levels after intervention

The most effective way to evaluate the effect of the intervention on diabetes development is through laboratory testing. Cholesterol levels and blood sugar levels of the patient need to be tested before the start of the intervention. The needed changes have to be determined. After the intervention, the levels are tested again. The changes should indicate the effect of the intervention.

Desired Outcomes

  • Lower weight
  • Lower cholesterol
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Lower blood sugar
  • Active lifestyle

The weight of the patient should be lower. Cholesterol levels should be lower. Blood pressure should be lower. Blood sugar levels should be lower. The person should have an active lifestyle.

Steps To Follow If The Plan Is Unsuccessful

  • Check allergies
  • Blood pressure medication
  • Cholesterol medication
  • Education
  • Evaluate the new plan

Allergies to medications should be checked. Blood pressure medication is then prescribed. Cholesterol medication is also prescribed. The patient needs to be educated on them. The plan is evaluated after.

Summary

  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Lower weight
  • Lower blood pressure
  • Active lifestyle

The patient is at risk because they are overweight and have hypertension. Diet and exercise are needed as an intervention. They should reduce the patient’s weight. Subsequently, the blood pressure should lower. To sustain it, the patient should lead an active lifestyle.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2015). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical Diabetes: A Publication of the American Diabetes Association, 33(2), 97–111. Web.

Diabetes management: Intensive lifestyle interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes. (2016). Web.

Diabetes management: Interventions engaging community health workers. (2016). Web.