Hypertension: Basic Research and Clinical Practice

Hypertension is one of the common health issues in the USA that is associated with various negative health outcomes. It has been estimated that over 80 million Americans suffer from this disorder (Clare, 2014). Hypertension is often associated with aging, but young adults and even children can be affected as well. It is necessary to note that some populations are specifically vulnerable due to ethnicity, age, lifestyle, and so on. Islam (2017) notes that hypertension can be quite difficult to diagnose and treat while lifestyle can be regarded as one of the central factors associated with the disorder. The researcher adds that some treatment plans fail due to various side effects of medication, difficulties associated with diagnosing, and the overall dissatisfaction and frustration of patients. This paper includes a brief overview of the disease as well as a PICOT question for future research.

Hypertension can be defined as high blood pressure. It is often divided into three stages: stage 1 (140/90 mmHg), stage 2 (160/100mmHg), and severe hypertension (180/100 mmHg or higher) (Clare, 2014). As far as the epidemiology of this disorder is concerned, the central risk factors include diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, alcohol use, the use of certain medications, stress, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet. It is noteworthy that due to the peculiarities of the disease some populations are more vulnerable as compared to other groups. For instance, people of color are often prone to the development of hypertension as they have to endure lasting stress, they have unhealthy diets and lifestyles. In many cases, these people have a limited understanding of the benefits of healthier lifestyles and diets, which makes them less concerned about that matter.

When it comes to the clinical presentation of hypertension, it is noteworthy that the disorder is often referred to as a silent killer as symptoms often occur in quite severe forms (Clare, 2014). These symptoms are headaches, vomiting, seizures, blurred vision, and the like. The major complications associated with hypertension are coronary heart disease, renal disease, aortic aneurysm, stroke, heart failure, coma, and death. People can live with undiagnosed hypertension for decades, which increases the risk of the development of some severe health conditions.

As has been mentioned above, hypertension can be rather difficult to diagnose. The hypertension diagnosis can be developed based on several readings of blood pressure. Blood pressure monitoring is regarded as the most effective strategy. A patient’s blood pressure is monitored 24 hours, and it is important to make sure that the patient has a typical routine. An alternative approach implies measurements conducted twice a day for a week. Hypertension diagnosis often includes the assessment of possible causes of the disorder and the implementation of the corresponding tests (Clare, 2014). For instance, the measured factors include blood electrolytes, protein or blood in urine, blood glucose, and some other.

In conclusion, it is possible to note that hypertension is a serious health issue that needs to be addressed as it can have detrimental effects on people’s health. Some groups of people are specifically vulnerable due to ethnic and socio-economic peculiarities. It is acknowledged that people’s lifestyle is one of the essential factors contributing to the development of the disorder. Therefore, future research will focus on the impact of lifestyles on the health conditions of a particular population. The PICOT question can be formulated in the following way. For African American ages 18-35 who have uncontrolled hypertension who receive care from a community health center (P), does ongoing education on lifestyle modifications (healthy eating habits and increased physical activity) (I), compared to African American hypertensive patient who receives medication therapy alone without education on lifestyle modifications (C), contributes to better control of blood pressure; therefore, reducing the incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke (O), over 1 year?

References

Clare, C. (2014). The person with a cardiovascular disorder. In I. Peate, K. Wild, & M. Nair (Eds.), Nursing practice: Knowledge and care (pp. 542-568). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Islam, S. (2017). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. In S. Islam (Ed.), Hypertension: From basic research to clinical practice (pp. 109-117). New York, NY: Springer.