Obesity and hypertension are common health issues associated with diabetes type 2 (Woo & Wynne, 2013). Obesity plays a substantial role in adipocytokine dysregulation which is suggested to be a pathogenic trigger of insulin resistance and other diabetes-related problems (Xi, Chow, & Kong, 2016). Moreover, it is observed that a significant overlap between diabetes and hypertension exist in their etiology, and obesity is considered one of the potential pathways leading to substantial arterial and vascular complications (Cheung & Li, 2012).
When encountering a patient, a care provider needs to calculate his/her BMI, identify the factors contributing to overweight development, and assess the patient’s readiness to lose weight and achieve health improvement goals through compliance with diet, increase in physical activity, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2016). The lifestyle change is one of the most effective methods for the achievement of sustained weight loss which may lead to significant reductions in blood glucose and blood pressure (ADA, 2016).
For the achievement of positive results, it can be recommended to restrict the uptake of high-fat and high-carbohydrate foods and to participate in an intensive intervention program aimed to improve patient behavior under the supervision of competent interventionists.
Sodium restriction is one of the non-pharmacological methods for the intervention of hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2. Since weight loss is associated with the reduction in blood pressure, moderate physical activity may be recommended to patients (ADA, 2013). The drug therapy for hypertension may be based on the combination of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ADA, 2003). It also may be useful to combine these drugs with beta-blockers and diuretics (ADA, 2003).
American Diabetes Association. (2003). Treatment of hypertension in adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26(Supplement 1). Web.
American Diabetes Association. (2016). Obesity management for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 39(Supplement 1), S47-S51.
Cheung, B. M., & Li, C. (2012). Diabetes and hypertension: Is there a common metabolic pathway? Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 14(2), 160-166. Web.
Woo, T.M. & Wynne, A.L. (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for nurse practitioner prescribers. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company
Xi, L., Chow, C., & Kong, X. (2016). Role of tissue and systemic hypoxia in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Journal Of Diabetes Research, 1-3. Web.