Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women

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Abstract

Sexual and Reproduction Health (SRH) plays a vital role in supporting the social adaption of women. A number of studies revealed a positive correlation between these parameters. In most cases, the research works have shown that women who are educationally empowered are more socially adaptable as compared to those who are not educated. Therefore, this paper aims to explore and analyze the results of such studies to provide insight into the impact of SRH literacy on the lives on women.

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Introduction

Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) literacy is one of the significant prerequisites of promoting the social adaptation of women. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the concept of SRH literacy in women as the ability to have cognitive and social skills required to access, understand, and use the information in a manner that promotes co-existence and good health (Cheong et al., 2018). In most cases, literacy should facilitate operations, interactions, and overall functional ability in the community. Previous studies have suggested that education and literacy on matters concerning sexuality among women have improved their health and that of children and their families. Therefore, this research paper aims to explore the role of sexual and reproductive health literacy in women’s social adaptation.

Method

The study was conducted among the women who had previously visited the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in New York City. The design of the research used both the quantitative and qualitative approaches to determine the effects of reproductive health literacy on women’s social adaptation (Maricic et al., 2020). The sources’ results were critically analyzed and recorded to help promote the accuracy of the present outcome. In terms of the quantitative technique, some secondary sources on the topic were analyzed (Maricic et al., 2020). Subsequently, the study administered self-structured questionnaires comprising of several parts: sexual, reproductive and health knowledge and behavior, personal health-lifestyle, and social effect. The respondents were expected to take actively take part to help in answering these questions.

The research subjects were 300 women chosen through stratified sampling among the beneficiaries of Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in New York City. The criteria for selecting the respondents were mainly based on the four main factors (Maricic et al., 2020). These included the willingness to participate in the study, the age over 18 years, and a reasonable and sound mind to take part in the exercise and answer the questionnaire as expected.

Before the research’s onset, all respondents was familiarized with the objectives and the standard procedures of the investigation. They were provided with the opportunity to explore the questions before they submitted their answers. Later, the participants were allowed to carry out the exercise to help in determining the results. The obtained results were subsequently analyzed using inferential statistical methods such as Chi-Square Test (Aaby et al., 2017). Further, the descriptive statistical approaches for measuring central tendency, such as mean and median, were applied. The study results were later processed using the Chi-Square (Aaby et al., 2017). The entire process was carried out with due diligence to promote the validity and reliability of the results. Importantly, the consent of the respondents was requested before the research.

Results

The results obtained from the study showed that a complete number of 145 subjects had 70% literacy on sexuality and reproductive health, while 30% of the entire population had an inadequate level of health literacy. The largest number of the subject that had the knowledge mainly comprised of women aged 18-29 years, while the rest with limited knowledge were predominantly 49 years and above (Maricic et al., 2020). The categorization of the above age group was a indicated that older women were less educated than younger participants.

Concerning social adaptation, the results indicated that 96% of the women with adequate literacy were socially adaptable and capable of carrying out their activities as required by the community. Based on the Chi-Square results, a significant difference (p=0.288) was detected (Maricic et al., 2020). The above figures show a positive correlation between the literacy level and the social adaption of women. Consequently, only 40% of the illiterate participants were sociable (Maricic et al., 2020). This trend indicates that lack of education harmed social adaption among women in society.

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Currently, certain regions in developing countries struggle with numerous issues associated with low SRH literacy, poor quality, and inaccessibility of SRH services. In such areas, more than 30 million women do not give birth in health facilities; more than 45 million have inadequate or no antenatal care (Starrs et al., 2018). More than 23 million abortions take place worldwide annually, and around 200 million women do not use modern contraception even if they want to avoid pregnancy (Starrs et al., 2018). Millions of people across the globe now suffer from curable sexually transmitted infections.

Futhermore, nearly 2 million people become infected with HIV every year (Starrs et al., 2018). Moreover, various social phenomena in communities across the world continue to undermine the chances to cure various types of diseases associated with SRH. All the above-mentioned SRH issues have to be addressed alongside economic problems and gender inequality to provide women with a chance to adapt socially and to increase the quality of their lives.

The most crucial elements of women’s SRH that have a direct impact on the well-being of a community include HIV, contraception, and maternal and newborn health. Numerous countries still cannot provide the citizens with the access to high-quality SRH services. Therefore, international organizations should do their utmost to cooperate with the governments on the issues associated with SRH literacy. Nevertheless, a holistic approach to women’s SRH remains the preferable way to address the problem. If a nation has enough resources to create a comprehensive infrastructure capable of providing its population with high-quality SRH services, it should be assisted in various ways.

Sexual and Reproductive Health literacy has long been considered instrumental in the development of the appropriate communication patterns within various communities that ensure a respectful attitude to females and a comprehensive understanding of the needs they have. Moreover, current initiatives aim to address multiple social and psychological issues that may hinder the promotion of the necessity of proper care and treatment in a community.

The ability of females to adapt is central to the development of numerous institutions that allow for the proper functioning of society. Moreover, the ability of females to be a part of a productive team and to communicate with other members of society as citizens and consumers enhances a nation’s workforce and economy in general. Therefore, every state should find the means to promote health literacy among women, as it has a direct impact on the well-being of a society as a whole.

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Discussion

Based on the provided results, it is clear that sexual and reproduction health literacy directly correlates with women’s social adaption. According to the Chi-Square results, it was evident that there is a positive correlation between literacy and social cohesion. In other words, women with SRH literacy were positively linked to ideal health behavior, integration with other society members, and effective utilization of health care services (Maricic et al., 2020).

The outcomes further suggested that well-educated women on matters related to sexuality respond well to issues affecting the community members. Consequently, the research revealed that illiteracy on the issues related to sexuality had a significant impact on reducing these subjects’ power to socialize in the community. In most cases, the lack of education in this critical part made most of the participants fail to carry out their duties as expected.

The above results confirm the information collected from the secondary sources, which indicates a positive correlation between the variables. According to the sources, elite women were socially adaptable and excellent in carrying out their society’s operations. The largest percentage of the population (84%) of the literate women performed well. These members were capable of accepting, understanding, and using health care information in the best way to improve their lives and that of society’s members (Maricic et al., 2020). Research conducted by other professionals continued to indicate a constructive relationship between these critical parameters (Aaby et al., 2017). As a result, the research concluded that SRH literacy positively correlated with women’s social adaptation in the community. The study noted that the educated women could promote social progress and were determined to take care of their families in the best interest.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the numerous crises it has led through also have an impact on the sexual and reproductive health of women. For instance, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of coronavirus disease, whether during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding, is one of many clinical questions to be answered in relation to the modes of transmission (Tang et al., 2020). Moreover, the social and economic issues that have been exacerbated by the virus and the lockdowns have affected some of the successful results of the policies aimed at the enhancement of the SRH literacy among women. Besides, some of the women who show high literacy levels may be exposed to completely new risks under different circumstances.

For instance, gender-based and domestic violence is also a major concern of SRH and rights, and the consequences of enforced self-quarantine or compulsory quarantine policy to contain the outbreak are unknown (Tang et al., 2020). Therefore, states and activists should implement certain strategies that ensure that women can maintain high SRH literacy levels and have the opportunity to apply this knowledge.

The scientific community should make the investigation of the links between the behavior patterns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and the SRH one of its priorities when dealing with the crisis. The changes in the lifestyle caused by the pandemic and the quarantines have put some of the most vulnerable demographic groups at risk of domestic violence and abuse. Therefore, researchers, officials, and medical workers should cooperate in order to outline the most efficient strategies to mitigate the crisis. A wide range of new initiatives is needed to evaluate the scale of the problem when it comes to SRH literacy performance.

Moreover, a new set of tools should be utilized to address the new issues that can hinder women’s opportunities to adapt socially in the new era. Currently, high unemployment rates and numerous other economic problems make it challenging for women to find the new spheres where they can realize their full potential.

SRH services should be provided at a much larger scale in times of crisis. Women’s SRH is vital to the overall well-being of a community, both in the short and in the long run. Therefore, a number of easy to implement programs should be started by all communities in a timely manner in order to prevent future issues that governments will find difficult to address due to economic problems. For instance, contraceptives should be actively promoted and made accessible. There is a wide range of other initiatives that have proven to be useful during crisis. Consequently, communities across the globe should now utilize them, as the devastating impact of the pandemic on women’s SRH has already been revealed by a number of comprehensive research.

Government efforts can often be undermined by a community’s approach to the discussions centering around sexual issues. Therefore, governments worldwide should find the proper way to promote SRH problems as increasingly important in the 21st century. The most efficient yet complex option is to cooperate with other states to design new international agreements focusing on health and development issues. A lack of resources and the widespread discrimination against women in many developing countries should not undermine the motivation behind such an important matter.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is notable that literacy in sexual and reproductive health directly relates to women’s ability to adapt socially. The outcomes showed a significant positive difference between these parameters. Therefore, every state needs to promote health literacy among women. Even though the process may be regarded as an individual effort, it should be conditioned by the relevant authorities to help achieve the required level of social adaption.

One of the powerful strength of the study is that it utilized both the qualitative and qualitative approaches to effectively analyze the data. Nevertheless, the research conducted in the health care facility should not be used as the main ground for promoting the social adaption among women. The health care providers should understand that the provision of such literacy is an essential strategy for promoting health and the overall social and economic capacity of these members of society. However, more studies should be carried out to help in validating the above results.

The issue should be addressed in multiple ways, and a variety of research can allow for sophisticated data needed to design certain strategies aimed at assisting females with their knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Therefore, in order to get the full picture of the problem and to be able to influence the decision-making process concerning such initiatives, studies have to include information on different demographic groups from various states. Thus, the scientific community will be able to actively promote its vision of the tools needed to enhance SRH literacy among women.

States should also find multiple options for cooperation, as the lack of information on the issues continues to be the main factor that discourages the further implementation of programs and their creation in certain states. One of the major problems with the low SRH literacy levels is the lack of expertise and sometimes even competence in a number of developing countries. Moreover, showing communities across the globe the urgent nature of the issue is crucial. Multiple social and economic problems caused by the lack of knowledge and experience concerning sexual and reproductive health continue to undermine the efforts of numerous politicians and social activists. Therefore, the UN and various other organizations should find the most suitable strategies to influence the SRH literacy policies in such countries.

References

Aaby, A., Friis, K., Christensen, B., Rowlands, G., & Maindal, H. T. (2017). Health literacy is associated with health behavior and self-reported health: A large population-based study in individuals with cardiovascular disease. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24(17), 1880-1888. Web.

Cheong, S. M., Nor, M., Ahmad, M. H., Manickam, M., Ambak, R., Shahrir, S. N., & Aris, T. (2018). Improvement of health literacy and intervention measurements among low socioeconomic status women: Findings from the [email protected] home study. BMC Women’s Health, 18(1), 99-102. Web.

Maricic, M., Curuvija, R. A., & Stepovic, M. (2020). Health literacy in female–association with socioeconomic factors and effects on reproductive health. Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 21(2), 127-132. Web.

Starrs, A. M., Ezeh, A. C., Barker, G., Basu, A., Bertrand, J. T., Blum, R., Coll-Seck, A., Grover, A., Laski, L., Roa, M., Sathat, Z. A., Say, L., Serour, G. I., Singh, S., Stenberg, K., Temmerman, M., Biddlecom, A., Popinchalk, A., Summers, C., & Ashford, L. S. (2018). Accelerate progress – sexual and reproductive health and rights for all: Report of the Guttmacher – Lancet Commission. The Lancet, 391(10140), 2642-2692. Web.

Tang, K., Gaoshan, J., Ahonsi, B., Ali, M., Bonet, M., Broutet, N., Kara, E., Kim, C., Thorson, A., & Thwin, S. S. (2020). Sexual and reproductive health (SRH): A key issue in the emergency response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Reproductive Health, 17, 1-3. Web.

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NursingBird. (2022, May 2). Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women. Retrieved from https://nursingbird.com/health-literacy-in-social-adaptation-of-women/

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NursingBird. (2022, May 2). Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women. https://nursingbird.com/health-literacy-in-social-adaptation-of-women/

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"Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women." NursingBird, 2 May 2022, nursingbird.com/health-literacy-in-social-adaptation-of-women/.

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NursingBird. (2022) 'Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women'. 2 May.

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NursingBird. 2022. "Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women." May 2, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/health-literacy-in-social-adaptation-of-women/.

1. NursingBird. "Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women." May 2, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/health-literacy-in-social-adaptation-of-women/.


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NursingBird. "Health Literacy in Social Adaptation of Women." May 2, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/health-literacy-in-social-adaptation-of-women/.