Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogen commonly found in the tropical areas. The bacterial pathogen can survive within the body system and in the external environments such as contaminated water, food items, or in human waste. This pathogen is the main cause of amoebic dysentery, a disease that is characterized by the inflammation of intestines. The pathogen is easily transmitted from the external environment into the human body by taking contaminated water or food. According to Hoffmann (2009), this pathogen can remain inactive in the external environment for a very long time, but once it is consumed, it becomes active and its effect becomes evident in the body. In most of the cases, it enters the body through the mouth into the stomach and finally into the intestines where it causes major damages. According to Rogers (2011), once the pathogen enters the intestines, it multiplies very fast. The pathogen then starts to burrow the intestinal linings, causing ulcers within the digestive tract. The damaged walls cause bleeding, which is the main reason why these patients always have bloody stool. It also causes sharp pain and other infections in the intestines. The colon is the worst affected part of the intestine, which is why people suffering from amoebic dysentery lose a lot of water.
According to the World Health Organization, over 50 million persons across the world are infected by amoebic dysentery every year, out of which 50,000 cases of death are reported (Tamparo & Lewis, 2011). The report also shows that the disease is common in West and Central Africa, East Africa, South America, and South East Asia. It is more prevalent in areas where people fail to take care of their hygiene. Diagnosis of the disease starts by taking the patient’s history to understand the symptoms exhibited, and doing a simple physical examination to detect dehydration of the lips, mouth, and skin. After getting the history, the physician will recommend a lab test. Cultures of the stool will be conducted to identify the pathogen. Management of amoebic dysentery involves use of oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluid replacement in case the disease has reached advanced stages (Tamparo & Lewis, 2011). Amoebicidal drug and antibiotics are needed for the treatment process. Drugs such as iodoquinol and metronidazole are also used to fight the disease.
Mononucleosis is a common infectious virus that causes enlarged lymph nodes, sore throat, or fever. The disease is very common among teenagers and some young adults. The virus can be transmitted from the host to another person through kissing. The virus thrives in body fluids such as saliva. Rogers (2011) says that it can also be transmitted by sharing glasses or through cough. In most of the cases, this complication always resolves without medication. It may last for a few weeks. Medications are always meant to ease the symptoms and eliminate discomfort.
Haemophilus influenza is a bacterium that belongs to Pasteurellaceae family. According to Greenwood (2008), H. influenza is responsible for numerous respiratory infections. According to this scholar, this pathogen can live in the host for several months without causing any complications. The complication only arises when other additional factors such as reduced immunity or viral infection occur. The bacterium has developed resistance against some families of antibiotics such as penicillin. Children below the age of 5 years are the worst affected by this bacterium. Ceftriaxone and cefotaximine are currently the most effective antibiotics used in the treatment of patients affected by the bacterium.
Greenwood, D. (2008). Antimicrobial drugs: Chronicle of a twentieth century medical triumph. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hoffmann, G. (2009). Digestive system. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
Rogers, K. (2011). The Digestive System. Chicago: Britannica Educational Pub.
Tamparo, C. D., & Lewis, M. A. (2011). Diseases of the Human Body. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.