COVID-19: Group Field Experience

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Abstract

The transforming healthcare scene seems to require a more cooperative and facilitated group way to effectively address patients’ issues, given the monetary impediments of the governmentally financed medical services framework. The utilization of game components persuades understudies to learn and decidedly influences their learning results. In wellbeing disciplines, reproduction games are the most mainstream sort of instructive games, particularly in light of the fact that they empower understudies to learn and create various abilities applicable to wellbeing callings in a protected manner.

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Nursing understudies can be ready for unforeseen circumstances, for example, saving patients or taking care of contentions in cooperation by participating in reenactment games. Studies illustrate that medical students show better education outcomes when they are playing intuitive games than participating in customary learning. Understudies today are acquainted with utilizing assorted advances that are intuitive and connecting, for example, extraordinary Internet-based assets and PC-based recreations.

The selected sources show that creative ways to deal with wellbeing schooling and conveyance, which accentuate a group way to dealing with understanding consideration, can prompt better thinking about patients and more noteworthy occupation fulfillment for wellbeing experts. Additionally, this procedure improves composed admittance to fitting clinicians and assets and decreases costs related to excess clinical testing and clinical blunders. Viable examination choices are incorporated for understudies for planning and making a reproduction computer game which is near genuine circumstances.

Background

The current COVID-19 pandemic unveiled some of the most urgent issues in the healthcare systems of the vast majority of countries. Healthcare professionals proved to be ill-prepared to the associated challenges as well. Such aspects as collaboration, interdisciplinary team development, creativity, critical thinking skills, and professional knowledge should be the core areas to address in nursing education (Johnsen et al., 2018). The use of the design thinking approach has gained momentum recently as it enables students to acquire knowledge and align the skills they obtain in classrooms with clinical experience (Marra et al., 2018).

This approach is specifically beneficial for acquiring the skills necessary to collaborate effectively in interdisciplinary teams, which are common in the present-day clinical setting. This project is based on the use of design thinking. It aims to address the following PICO question: Will the use of a game jam event, utilizing Design Thinking, improve the critical thinking skills of BSN students, compared to traditional classroom activities? This paper includes a brief description of the proposed study, as well as some recommendations concerning future research.

Literature Review

Prior to analyzing design thinking programs and their efficiency, it is important to consider one of the common components of this method. Interprofessional collaboration is one of the common approaches to clinical practice that has proved to be effective in addressing modern public health issues. This model is often utilized in design thinking projects due to the need to address complex health or organizational problems that required the discussion of diverse ideas.

Pinto et al. (2012) explored the attitude of healthcare students to interprofessional collaboration and found the participants’ positive perspective regarding the matter. Healthcare professionals’ readiness and willingness to work in interprofessional teams are beneficial for implementing various design thinking initiatives.

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As mentioned above, design thinking has attracted considerable attention in academia. For instance, Marra et al. (2018) examined the effectiveness of a design thinking project in terms of patient outcomes and students’ service-learning. Students worked on a project that involved the development of community-based programming, which helped them gain insights into effective frameworks for addressing issues. The program proved to be beneficial for students’ academic progress as well as their future professional lives.

Another study showed the benefits of the use of design thinking in evaluating interprofessional education. Cahn et al. (2016) carried out a study aimed at evaluating the potential use of design thinking in delivering patient-centered care. Importantly, the implementation of the design thinking approach helped students practice valuable skills that will be helpful in future work, including their potential involvement in interprofessional teamwork.

Although the participants did not detect clear, direct links to positive patient outcomes, they identified the relationship between interprofessional collaboration and organizational culture. They assumed that healthcare teams would definitely benefit from the use of this approach in the clinical setting.

Serious game development has become one of the most recent educational elements in the healthcare setting. Students and practitioners play and develop games that are instrumental in addressing specific clinical issues. For instance, Johnsen et al. (2016) claim that simulation games are “a safe and authentic environment” to improve decision-making skills and other important aspects of clinical practice (p. 39).

Importantly, serious games proved to be effective in achieving particular educational goals, but this method is positively seen by students, which is an important factor affecting academic outcomes. Johnsen et al. (2016) also identified some beneficial components of serious games. For instance, videos with real-life clinical cases and actors add realism and have a positive impact on the learning process.

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In addition to quite formal and typical simulation games characterized by a display of some situations and the discussion of possible solutions, more innovative approaches have been introduced. For example, Gómez-Urquizaa et al. (2019) analyzed the outcomes of the use of “escape room” teaching games related to students’ attitudes and motivation. It was found that students strongly believed that the game helped them in acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary for completing exams successfully.

The development of serious games is gaining momentum and becoming a common educational practice. Johnsen et al. (2018) described the process of the creation of a simulation game. This project is specifically illustrative in terms of the employed instruments as it involved a design thinking approach and interprofessional collaboration. The game was developed by an interprofessional team that followed certain steps, including the identification of learning objectives, genre and context, theoretical frameworks, and exact teaching strategies.

At the same time, it has been acknowledged that although some effort aimed at developing and evaluating game-based projects has been made, this area needs further research. Havola et al. (2020) implemented a review of the current research on the matter and identified the most common aspects appearing in researchers’ lenses. The authors note that simulation game projects include such components as the story, action, and feedback (Havola et al., 2020). It is also emphasized that validation tools need specific attention.

Research Experience

There are some interesting research experiences which are provided in the chosen resources. One of them is Serious Game, which gives four video-based, recreated situations from clinical practice. Half of them happen in a home medical care setting and two in an emergency clinic setting. Players partake in a medical caretaker’s visits to a patient with a specific disorder in various illness development phases. During these situations, clients need to understand distinctive errands and questions based on tests. Various inquiries depend on the six intellectual cycle classes of Bloom’s scientific taxonomy (Johnsen et al., 2018).

There is also a community-oriented intuitive game where members separate into teams of three and rotate across stations. Then, they engage with successful students in nursing, speech expertise, and physical therapy (Cahn et al., 2016). It involves the help of a clinical school graduate and a doctor who plays a patient.

Another similar student engagement is games when players must solve introduced puzzles and riddles related to patient caregiving (Gómez-Urquizaa et al., 2019). In doing this, they should operate with both hypothetical and reasonable information, and an instructor stays in the study hall to evaluate whether the nursing methods being referred to are effectively performed. As a result, the studies offer many creative ideas on how nursing students may develop their own simulative and interactive game, which can help them in preparing for actual life scenarios.

Based on the recent literature and the established PICO question, it is possible to consider several research alternatives. First, the students may be asked to develop a plan for the creation of a simulation video game. This project will involve the creation of teams, the utilization of the design thinking approach to develop clear steps, and evaluation procedures. During the initial stage, healthcare students will come up with a list of professionals to be involved in their project.

However, it is critical to make sure that the process is close to real-life circumstances (Johnsen et al., 2016). In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often have to create interprofessional teams, so they should understand which practitioners can contribute to this or that project.

The design thinking model involves the discussion of the necessary components of the game. Students will not have any specific instructions as to the elements of the game to be included. The final phase of the project will be the creation of evaluation methods to identify the effectiveness of the game. Healthcare professionals will be involved in the development of diverse projects, and they should have the necessary skills to assess the outcomes of their programs.

The proposed study will be qualitative and involve focus group discussions. The participants will share their views on the process of game development and its effects related to their academic goals. This type of data collection is beneficial for the present research as the discussion of different aspects of the project may help in identifying the most relevant elements for the participants.

The focus will be on the process of game creation and its potential outcomes for healthcare professionals and patients. As a result, the nursing student will be able to adapt to the real clinical experience by constructing their own practical game, which uses the provided sources as a base.

Future Plans/Summary

Future nursing instructions are tested to create inventive and viable projects that line up with current medical care changes. The use of a game jam event teaches attendants with an elevated level of clinical thinking aptitudes, proof-based information, and expert self-governance. Game components have not been used differently in simulative games. Encounters in learning clinical thinking by taking part in reproduction games have been evaluated once in a while (Havola et al., 2020; Johnsen et al., 2018).

Instruments used to survey learning encounters with simulation activities should be additionally evolved and approved. The practice is fundamental to learning, particularly when reenactment games are utilized for studying. Every individual has a unique experience of a game jam event. Consequently, the association between game components and future nurses’ particular mental necessities must be considered.

Utilizing video-based situations with a patient and a nurse of the home medical care as entertainers add to better realism and understanding. Additionally, there is mounting proof that inter-professional education (IPE) can encourage the reception of inter-professional collaboration in medical care settings by changing the perspectives of healthcare services’ experts.

IPE permits them to feel more positive about their jobs and capacities, be more mindful and conscious of others’ work and obligations, and thoughtfully make clinically associated decisions (Pinto et al., 2012). Collaborative interpersonal learning is currently observed as an approach to advance patient consideration results while, at the same time, decreasing expenses.

In conclusion, it is critical to think about the value and effectiveness of new learning strategies as well as nursing students’ practices of usability. As indicated by the research, more game components should be added into recreation games utilized for clinical experience teaching (Havola et al., 2020). What is more, the results demonstrate that students’ encounters in learning medical approaches by taking part in simulation games are relatively uncommon. Therefore, it is essential to promote and develop new technological advances which might facilitate and improve the learning system of potential nurses.

References

Cahn, P. S., Bzowyckyj, A., Collins, L., Dow, A., Goodell, K., Johnson, A. F., Klocko, D., Knab, M., Parker, K., Reeves, S., & Zierler, B. K. (2016). A design thinking approach to evaluating interprofessional education. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 30(3), 378–380. Web.

Gómez-Urquiza, J. L., Gómez-Salgado, J., Albendín-García, L., Correa-Rodríguez, M., González-Jiménez, E., & Fuente, G. A. C.-D. L. (2019). The impact on nursing students’ opinions and motivation of using a “Nursing Escape Room” as a teaching game: A descriptive study. Nurse Education Today, 72, 73–76. Web.

Havola, S., Koivisto, J., Mäkinen, H., & Haavisto, E. (2020). Game elements and instruments for assessing nursing students’ experiences in learning clinical reasoning by using simulation games: An integrative review. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 46, 1-14. Web.

Johnsen, H. M., Fossum, M., Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Fruhling, A., & Slettebø, Å. (2016). Teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students: Design, development, and usability evaluation of a serious game. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 94, 39–48. Web.

Johnsen, H. M., Fossum, M., Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Fruhling, A., & Slettebø, Å. (2018). Developing a serious game for nurse education. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(1), 15–19. Web.

Marra, L. R., Stanton-Nichols, K., Hong, Y., Gottschild, K., Pirzadeh, I., & Stamatis, S. (2018). Design thinking as a strategic planning tool for adapted physical activity programs within a university setting. PALAESTRA, 32(4). Web.

Pinto, A., Lee, S., Lombardo, S., Salama, M., Ellis, S., Kay, T., Davies, R., & Landry, M. D. (2012). The impact of structured inter-professional education on health care professional students’ perceptions of collaboration in a clinical setting. Physiotherapy Canada, 64(2), 145–156. Web.

Appendix

Article Title Article Authors Year Published Methods Instruments Conclusions/findings Implications for Research project
The Impact of Structured Inter-professional Education on Health Care Professional Students’ Perceptions of Collaboration in a Clinical Setting. Pinto, A., Lee, S., Lombardo, S., Salama, M., Ellis, S., Kay, T., Davies, R., & Landry, M. D. 2012 This study used a mixed-methods design. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) was administered to HCP students (n ¼ 36) in two Toronto hospitals before and after a structured 5-week IPE clinical placement to examine changes in their perceptions of IPC. Students in a traditional clinical placement (n ¼ 28) were used as a control group. Focus groups were then conducted with seven students who took part in the structured IPE clinical placement. A coding framework was devised a priori, and the qualitative results were used to explain the quantitative findings. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) Findings suggest that structured IPE clinical placements may provide students with valuable collaborative learning opportunities, enhanced respect for other professionals, and insight into the value of IPC in healthcare delivery. The Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) is used to assess the perception of one’s own profession and the relationship of that profession to others. The IEPS includes 18 questions. Participant’s attitude to each question is rated from 1 to 6, which represents from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. During the game jam, students will work with others from various fields, in order to plan, design, and create a serious game. This scale can be used to evaluate the students’ experience of interdisciplinary collaboration through using a game jam event.
Developing a Serious Game for Nurse Education. Journal of Gerontological Nursing Johnsen, H. M., Fossum, M., Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Fruhling, A., & Slettebø, Å 2018 During 2015, an SG to teach nursing students clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in health care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a home health care and hospital setting was developed (Johnsen, Fossum, Vivekananda-Schmidt, Fruhling, & Slettebø, 2016). This paper aims to summarize the process when initiating and developing the SG. Department of Health and Nursing Science, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway In this paper, we have summarized the process of initiating and developing an SG. The SG in this project is an in-house product that does not have complex functions or graphics as in virtual-environment types of SGs. However, if considerations are taken concerning educational content and user–computer interaction design, even a simple and low-cost SG can be perceived as useful, usable, and well-liked by users. Thus, we hope this paper will motivate nurse educators to develop SGs that fit the needs in current education programs.
Teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students: Design, development, and usability evaluation of a serious game. Johnsen, H. M., Fossum, M., Vivekananda-Schmidt, P., Fruhling, A., & Slettebø, Å. 2016 A prototype SG was developed. A unified framework of usability called TURF (Task, User, Representation, and Function) and SG theory were employed to ensure a user- centered design. The educational content was based on the clinical decision-making model, Bloom’s taxonomy, and a Bachelor of Nursing curriculum. A purposeful sample of six participants evaluated the SG prototype in a usability laboratory. Cognitive walkthrough evaluations, a questionnaire, and individual interviews were used for the usability evaluation. The data were analyzed using qualitative deductive content analysis based on the TURF framework elements and related usability heuristics. Department of Health and Nursing Science, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway Using video based scenarios with an authentic COPD patient and a home healthcare registered nurse as actors contributed to increased realism. Using different theoretical approaches in the SG design was considered an advantage of the design process. The SG was perceived as being useful, usable, and satisfying. The achievement of the desired functionality and the minimization of user–computer interface issues emphasize the importance of conducting a usability evaluation during the SG development process. The SG was perceived as being realistic, clinically relevant, and at an adequate level of complexity for the intended users. Usability issues regarding functionality and the user– computer interface design were identified. However, the SG was perceived as being easy to learn, and participants suggested that the SG could serve as a supplement to traditional training in laboratory and clinical settings.
Design Thinking as
a Strategic Planning
Tool for Adapted
Physical Activity
Programs within a
University Setting
Marra, L. R., Stanton-Nichols, K., Hong, Y., Gottschild, K., Pirzadeh, I., & Stamatis, S. 2018 The Simplex Process was used: The eight steps of the Simplex Process can be divided into three subcategories: Problem Formulation (green), Solution Formulation
(blue) and Solution Implementation (purple). The steps within each individual subcategory can be defined in the following way:
Step 1: Problem Finding. Step 2: Fact Finding. Step 3: Problem Definition. Step 4: Idea Finding. Step 5: Evaluation and Selection. Step 6: Action Planning. Step 7: Gathering Acceptance. Step 8: Action- Implementing the
solution
Interviews were used to determine if the families found the creation of physical activity programs using design thinking useful. Students were also interviewed about this process. The six-month strategic planning process assisted
the council in the creation of a sustainable mission and
vision for our programs but it also elucidated how our
families and students see the benefits of our programs and
future possibilities. Following a path through the problem
formulation phase, fact finding revealed key stakeholder
values about clinic. During interviews families reported
on how the environment was conducive to learning and
instruction and that planned activities were fun, engaging,
and age-appropriate emphasizing the benefit of students’
experience, hands-on learning, and professional attainment
of skills. Significant to the fact-finding step was how the
“facts” lead to the development of vision and mission
statements inclusive of family, community, and student
education.
The implications of design thinking that was useful in physical activity programs can certainly be applied to the nursing world especially with students who are just learning how to critically think. The process of design thinking that was used here- the simplex process- can definitely be of use to nursing students while in school but also to nurses in the practical clinical setting.

Game Elements and Instruments for Assessing Nursing Students’ Experiences in Learning Clinical Reasoning by Using Simulation Games: An Integrative Review

Havola, S., Koivisto, J., Mäkinen, H., & Haavisto, E. 2020 The review includes nine studies retrieved from eight electronic databases. The data were analyzed deductively and inductively. electronic databases More game elements should be implemented in simulation games used by nursing students to learn CR. Moreover, the instruments used to assess nursing students’ experiences in learning CR through simulation games should be further developed and validated
The impact on nursing students’ opinions and motivation of using a “Nursing Escape Room” as a teaching game: A descriptive study Gómez-Urquiza, J. L., Gómez-Salgado, J., Albendín-García, L., Correa-Rodríguez, M., González-Jiménez, E., & Fuente, G. A. C.-D. L. January 2019 After completing the teaching game, the students who had taken part in it were asked to fill in an ad-hoc questionnaire on the matter. In this game, students have 30 min in which they must solve the riddles and puzzles presented, and thus escape. In doing so, they must demonstrate both theoretical and practical knowledge, and a teacher will remain in the classroom to assess whether the nursing techniques in question are correctly per- formed. Second-year nursing students enrolled in the ‘Adult Nursing 1’ subject. The ‘Escape Room’ is a useful game; it stimulates learning, is fun to play, and motivates studying. The nursing students who took part in the game strongly believed that this ‘helped them learn the subject’ (4.8 points) and that ‘more games of this type should be included in their nursing studies’ (4.8 points). Overall, they considered that ‘the game was enjoyable’ (4.6 points), ‘helped them in the exam’ (4.6 points), and ‘motivated them to study’ (4.5 points).

A design thinking approach to evaluating interprofessional education

Cahn, P. S., Bzowyckyj, A., Collins, L., Dow, A., Goodell, K., Johnson, A. F., Klocko, D., Knab, M., Parker, K., Reeves, S., & Zierler, B. K. 2015 The seminar structure followed the generative process of
design thinking. By following five sequential stages, design thinkers
create and test potential solutions to a central challenge.

Discovery
Gather stories
from key
stakeholders

Interpretation
Identify and
arrange themes

Ideation
Generate “How
might…”
questions

Experi-
mentation

Develop
prototypes and
seek feedback

Evolution
Select most
promising
question and
assign
follow-up

To fit the
framework of an academic seminar, time-
line shortened to 2 days and they substituted conceptual models for actual product prototypes while remaining faithful to the structured
process for innovation.

By generating and testing ideas through the design thinking process, participants arrived at a conclusion that questioned the seminar’s premise. Initial efforts to justify IPE by tying it directly to patient outcomes seemed to treat IPE as an end goal in itself. However, the intended consequence of effective IPE should be enhanced collaborative practice.
By the final stage, seminar participants identified the theme of organisational culture change as the most promising model for evaluating IPE because it provides an intermediate step between learning interventions and health outcomes.

The group concluded that future studies should focus on measuring an intermediate step between learning activities and patient outcomes.

The implementation of this research would be that design thinking has a significant contribution to the learning of students and the bridging of that in clinical sites. “With a mixed methods approach and an appreciation for context, researchers will be able to identify the factors that foster effective colla-
borative practice and, by extension, promote patient-centred care”

Table 1. The Activity Log.

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NursingBird. "COVID-19: Group Field Experience." July 15, 2022. https://nursingbird.com/covid-19-group-field-experience/.