The client’s basal metabolic index can be calculated through this formula: BMI=weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Therefore, the BMI of the 68-year-old client is 5ft 6inch height divided by the weight of 210 pounds. The answer is 33.9. Hence the BMI of the client is 33.9, which falls under the categorization of obesity. According to the World Health Organization, obesity refers to a BMI of 30 or greater (as cited in McClung et al., 2018). Obesity is caused by energy imbalances between calorie consumption and elimination. It is characterized by high-fat deposition in the body tissues. The abnormal disposition of lipids predisposes an individual to various lifestyle conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and heart diseases.
Tools for Measuring Dietary Intake and Physical Assessment Knowledge
Several tools exist for measuring dietary intake and physical assessment knowledge. First, dietary intake is measured using self-reports of the daily intake of foods. A client answers preset questions about the dietary intake during 24 hours to estimate the daily dietary caloric consumption. This data is essential in nutritional counseling by dieticians to treat dietary disorders. Second, technological advances have led to the creation of specialized tools for measuring dietary intake. These include image-based dietary assessment, automated 24-hour food recall, and smart kitchen (McClung et al., 2018). These tools provided information on individuals and populations’ dietary intake for the effective development of nutritional policies.
However, physical assessment can be done through individual self-report or through the use of devices that provide information on an individual’s physical exertion. These devices include heart rate monitors, which keep one informed of changes in the heart rate during exercises. Additionally, the pedometer machine counts the number of steps a person takes during activities. The physical exercise information is essential for making a clinical diagnosis about the number of calories burnt by the body during exercising.
Nursing Management of Obesity
The management of obesity is an inherent nursing action for the prevention of other undesirable health complications. One of the expected outcomes for imbalanced nutrition more than body requirements is assisting the patient in verbalizing the value of reducing her weight. The intervention of choice to meet this goal is providing health education to the patient about the importance of reducing weight to ideal levels (McKee & Morley, 2018). Providing education on the value of weight reduction is necessary to improve the client’s competencies to manage obesity.
Weaknesses in the Clients Life
Several aspects of the client’s life influence her maintenance of an optimum diet and exercise habits. First, the client has reduced energy levels, making it difficult for her to tolerate periods of physical exercise. The elderly period is characterized by an increased need for resting due to ease of tiredness (McKee & Morley, 2018). Second, the client may not be able to consistently secure an ideal diet for maintaining a healthy weight due to her low income. Moreover, hormonal changes accompanying aging disrupt the body’s fat disposition, increasing the risk of obesity. The digestion and absorption of dietary intake are also declined in the old. Therefore, an increased dietary and physical exercise support is needed for elderly clients.
Specialist management of obesity is needed for its management in the elderly. The client can be referred to a nutritionist for further nutritional assessments and counseling. A nutritionist will help the client develop a meal plan from the locally available produce congruent to reducing excessive calorie intake (McKee & Morley, 2018). Nutritional support is also crucial in instituting a weight-reduction program for the patient. Furthermore, the patient will be assisted in the promotion of an ideal physical activity by the patient. Physical activity assists in burning extra calories for optimum body weight. Timely referrals are needed for the prevention of complications in the patient.
McClung, H. L., Ptomey, L. T., Shook, R. P., Aggarwal, A., Gorczyca, A. M., Sazonov, E. S., Becofsky, K., Weiss, R., & Das, S. K. (2018). Dietary intake and physical activity assessment: current tools, techniques, and technologies for adult populations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 55(4), e93-e104.
McKee, A., & Morley, J. E. (2018). Obesity in the Elderly. Endotext. Web.