Obesity, discussed as an intricate health problem, has a substantial influence on people and is linked to the significant causes of death worldwide, such as stroke, heart disease, diabetes, and several cancer types. Researchers have studied various causes and effects of obesity that has an impact on the state of health, physical activity, and quality of life. To address the following PICOT question: In patients 40-60 years old diagnosed with obesity (P), does diet and physical plans modifications (I) compared with diet management (C) reduce patient weight and improve healthy lifestyles (O) in a 6-month period (T); one should gather information and the existing evidence.
The nursing guidelines have specific rules that aim to support people with obesity. Nevertheless, some obesity management methods can be more useful for people aged 40-60, and therefore, the evidence related should be discussed to find relevant suggestions regarding the research. The first article, “Aerobic or resistance exercise, or both, in dieting obese older adults” (Villareal et al., 2016), evaluates which activities are the most impactful for diet management, similar to the stated PICOT question, but discusses another demographic group. The study showed that the combination of diet and physical training is the most useful for obese people. Another article by Foster-Schubert et al. (2012) that investigated overweight-to-obese menopausal women presented that a combination of dieting and exercise has the best effect on weight loss.
The third research article by Slentz et al. (2016) discusses the best obesity management methods that are linked to the research question of the proposed study. Among all proposed activities of prediabetic older obese adults, including different physical training and nutritional intervention, the mix of moderate-intensity exercise and proper nutrition helps to lose bodyweight successfully. The fourth article, “Developing dimensions for a multicomponent multidisciplinary approach to obesity management: A qualitative study” (Cochrane et al., 2017), shows the different approaches to the PICOT question identified, namely qualitative research that presents the effects of multi-component obesity management. The study states that nursing practice in managing obese patients is essential for improving patients’ lifestyles. It is suggested that four factors that contribute to enhancing the healthy state of obese people are patient, practitioner, process, and environmental components (Cochrane et al., 2017).
The fifth article by Vazin et al. (2016) presents a qualitative study on a similar PICOT question with different demographic groups. The study assessed the effects of a mix of components included in obesity management. Researchers highlight that multi-factor treatment of obesity should consist of a diet, counseling, and physical training. Furthermore, the article “Perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of primary care providers toward obesity management: A qualitative study” (Bornhoeft et al., 2018) emphasizes the multi-component treatment of obesity and differences in obesity management approaches that have inconsistencies in prioritization.
Based on the information provided by researchers in the articles, several evidence-based practice changes can be suggested for the proper nursing practice towards obese patients’ management. First, it can be concluded that researchers highlight the approach that utilizes multiple activities aimed to fight obesity in older people. Dieticians, training physiologists, nurses, and other medical professionals should work together to give patients relevant recommendations and sustain a healthy lifestyle (DiMaria-Ghalili et al., 2014).
Second, the evidence-based practice should be changed towards the multi-factor intervention policy for obesity is urgent as researchers suggest, including tailor-made programs for patients that professionals can adjust depending on patients’ supplementary diseases and state of health (Slentz et al., 2016). Third, it is crucial to focus on nurses because they manage the patient’s situation every day and are at the forefront of the obesity management; therefore, they should be trained and given guidance to utilize the most effective methods against obesity. Finally, it is essential to create locations and facilities where overweight-to-obese older adults train and find information about a healthy lifestyle at the medical organizations.
Bornhoeft, K. (2018). Perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of primary care providers toward obesity management: A qualitative study. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 35(3), 85-101.
Cochrane, A. J., Dick, B., King, N. A., Hills, A. P., & Kavanagh, D. J. (2017). Developing dimensions for a multicomponent multidisciplinary approach to obesity management: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 814.
DiMaria-Ghalili, R. A., Mirtallo, J. M., Tobin, B. W., Hark, L., Van Horn, L., & Palmer, C. A. (2014). Challenges and opportunities for nutrition education and training in the health care professions: intraprofessional and interprofessional call to action. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 99(5 Suppl), 1184S–93S. Web.
Foster-Schubert, K. E., Alfano, C. M., Duggan, C. R., Xiao, L., Campbell, K. L., Kong, A., Bain,… & McTiernan, A. (2012). Effect of diet and exercise, alone or combined, on weight and body composition in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 20(8), 1628–1638. Web.
Slentz, C. A., Bateman, L. A., Willis, L. H., Granville, E. O., Piner, L. W., Samsa, G. P.,… & Kraus, W. E. (2016). Effects of exercise training alone vs a combined exercise and nutritional lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in prediabetic individuals: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia, 59(10), 2088-2098.
Vazin, R., McGinty, E. E., Dickerson, F., Dalcin, A., Goldsholl, S., Oefinger Enriquez, M., Jerome, G. J., Gennusa, J. V., & Daumit, G. L. (2016). Perceptions of strategies for successful weight loss in persons with serious mental illness participating in a behavioral weight loss intervention: A qualitative study. Psychiatric rehabilitation journal, 39(2), 137–146. Web.
Villareal, D. T., Aguirre, L., Gurney, A. B., Waters, D. L., Sinacore, D. R., Colombo, E., Armamento-Villareal, R., & Qualls, C. (2017). Aerobic or resistance exercise, or both, in dieting obese older adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 376(20), 1943–1955. Web.