Modifiable Risk Factors of Hypertension

Introduction

Based on previous assessments it can be concluded that one preventable disease that the adult participant can prevent is hypertension. The condition is notable due to the fact that it can develop without specific symptoms; however, the impact it has on a person’s heart is vast and can lead to severe consequences. The modifiable risk factor that can help the individual in question lead a healthy lifestyle is diet. The purpose of this paper is to develop a teaching plan for the patient that would help her maintain a healthy lifestyle and avoid hypertension in the future.

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Hypertension Overview

The disease is characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries. It is a chronic state, which leads to heart issues due to the fact that the organ is overloaded because it has to work harder for the blood to circulate through vessels (Ibekwe, 2015). Several issues are connected to diagnosing the condition due to its nature. Ibekwe (2015) states that “it has been described as the “silent killer” because the no particular symptoms are present at the initial stages of developing hypertension.

Blood pressure assessment is the primary approach to identifying whether a person is at risk or has the disease. According to Ibekwe (2015), 120/8 0 mmHg and 138/89 mmHg indicator for blood pressure is regarded as a pre-hypertension state. In cases where the levels are 140/90 mmHg or higher a patient is diagnosed with the illness.

Some relevant information from Health History and General Survey were assessed in regards to hypertension. J. A. A. had complaints of chest pains and was previously diagnosed with the condition. M. P. has a family history of hypertension, including her father who has had two heart attacks. This information helped identify that in both cases the individuals are at risk. This presents a chance for both patients; thus modifiable factors should be adjusted to ensure that possible adverse outcomes are mitigated. Additionally, M. P. should monitor blood pressure as a physical assessment tool to be able to identify a pre-hypertension state.

Evidence-Based Intervention

An unhealthy diet can lead to many preventable chronic conditions; thus patients should pay particular attention to what they eat. According to the American Heart Association a diet high in sodium or salt is among the modifiable risk factors for hypertension (“Know your risk factors for high blood pressure,” 2017). The resource recommends focusing on various types of food to ensure proper nutrition. The factor is substantiated by Ibekwe (2015), who states that additional issues may be presented by high-fat food. The author argues that regular physical activity and diet plan that considers foods, which may lead to increased blood pressure, can help a person avoid developing the condition.

The analysis of the literature has shown that hypertension is a dangerous disease; however, most of the factors that contribute to it are preventable. The short-term goals for J. A. A. and M. P. are to introduce the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) method. This includes a smaller number of processed foods and salt (Siervo et al., 2015). Instead, the patients should focus on eating fruits and vegetables and other dishes that do not contain fat. The long-term goals are to ensure that patients can monitor their blood pressure, lose weight due to proper diet, and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Implementation

The importance of a proper diet should be explained to the patients for them to understand that the risk factor has a significant effect on their health. Thus, specific statistics in regards to DASH and hypertension can provide a better understanding of the chosen approach. For instance, Siervo et al. (2015) state that a proper diet can lower the overall risk by 13% when using the Framingham risk score as an evaluation tool.

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Additionally, it is essential to ensure that family members are aware of the potential problem and can support a healthier eating habit for both patients. This is especially important for M. P. because in her case family history of hypertension is present in both her and her husband’s relatives.

The specific steps would include assessing the current diet approaches to determine which factors provide a risk for hypertension. Then, the patients should modify food choices that are not healthy. Various websites include dishes that were created in regards to the DASH method; for instance, MAYO clinic offers a good selection (“DASH diet recipes,” n.d.). The process is aimed at long-term changes; thus the patients should focus on getting used to foods that they both enjoy and consider healthy in regards to DASH.

Evaluation

The blood pressure of the patients should be assessed and monitored to evaluate whether the implementation of the plan was successful should be assessed and monitored. The approach is recommended by Ibekwe (2015) as a primary health assessment tool for hypertension. This should be done regularly to ensure that the chosen diet approach is helpful. In case the intervention is unsuccessful other modifiable risk factors should be examined, such as stress or high cholesterol.

Summary

Overall, hypertension is a severe disease that presents no symptoms in the initial stages of development. Thus, the patent may not be aware of the issue for extensive periods. However, both J. A. A. and M. P. have a family history of the condition, which is a non-modifiable risk factor. The two patients should adopt the DASH diet approach to illuminate foods that can cause high blood pressure in the long term. Patients who are taught proper dietary procedures can mitigate the risks of hypertension.

References

DASH diet recipes. (n.d.) Web.

Ibekwe, R. (2015). Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio-demographic profile in Oghara, Delta State; Prevalence and correlates. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 5(1), 71-7.

Know your risk factors for high blood pressure. (2017). Web.

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Siervo, M., Lara, J., Chowdhury, S., Ashor, A. W., Oggioni, C., & Mathers, J. C. (2015). Effects of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) diet on cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Nutrition, 113(1), 1-15. Web.

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