Energy is required to perform various processes that are necessary for life. In this paper, I look at some of the terms used in metabolism.
Anabolism refers to a group of metabolic pathways that produce novel organic molecules from simple precursors. Energy is an essential prerequisite in such processes because it drives the chemical reactions that are involved. Anabolism is essential for normal growth and development because it initiates the formation of new cells and tissues.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Adenosine triphosphate is a chemical compound classified under nucleoside triphosphates because it is composed of a nucleoside and three phosphate molecules. ATP is the form in which energy released from metabolism is transported to energy-requiring processes (MacLaren & Morton, 2011). The energy, which collects in the phosphodiester bonds of the compound, is freed when the bonds are severed.
Catabolism includes all metabolic paths that lead to the formation of small organic molecules from big precursors. Energy is released during the catabolism of organic compounds. The products of catabolism are either used as building blocks in other processes or broken down into waste products. Catabolism enables the release of energy from organic compounds.
High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
HDL is a protein that is conjugated to a lipid. It is the smallest lipoprotein whose function is to facilitate the transportation of fats in the form of cholesterol, triglycerides as well as phospholipids into cells and other cellular compartments. HDL eliminates harmful cholesterol and upholds the integrity of the interior walls of blood vessels thereby preventing the risk of cardiovascular complications.
Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL)
LDL is a lipoprotein with a lower density than HDL. LDL also transports cholesterol. However, its low density makes it form globules that can cause the blockage of blood vessels. LDL is known as the ‘bad cholesterol’ because it elevates the risk of arteriosclerosis (Gropper & Smith, 2013).
A thorough comprehension of the components and terms used in metabolism is essential in understanding the intricate process of thermoregulation.
Gropper, S. S., & Smith, J. L. (2013). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
MacLaren, D., & Morton, J. (2011). The biochemistry of sports and exercise metabolism. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.