The abstract section of the journal article does not have a research question being addressed even though a clear purpose of the study has been pointed out. The study explores various aspects that enhance the degree of risk that older Hispanic women are exposed to when it comes to HIV infection. The population and sampling method have also been highlighted in the abstract. For example, a qualitative descriptive method was used to sample data from the field. A sum of 50 people was involved in the study through five focus groups (Cianelli et al., 2013). Major themes were discussed in the focus groups as part of the sampling method. The method used to analyze data in this qualitative research study has not been documented in the abstract section. However, the article indicates findings and conclusions made in the study by stating that nurses’ roles are paramount in sensitizing and creating awareness in the prevention of new HIV infections and intimate partner violence.
The background of the study revolves around intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS infection among Hispanic women who are over 50 years (Kim, Peragallo & DeForge, 2006). Intimate partner violence refers to a form of action that is meant to cause pain to the recipient. The aggression is mostly practiced by men against their female companions, even though quite a significant proportion of males are also severely subjected to victimization from female colleagues. In either case, there is a higher prevalence of chronic pain, post-traumatic stress, and injuries from external causes, gastrin- problems and socialization as well as depressive symptoms.
There are numerous reported cases of older Hispanic women who have suffered numerous intimate partner violence (Bandura, 1995). Violence is an interactive event involving both men and women. However, the fact that women frequently seek healthcare services owing to serious and repeated aggressions from fellow males demonstrates that this problem is a major type of gender violence (Beaulaurier, Craig & De La Rosa, 2009).
According to the latest statistics provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), close to 1.2 million people are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. Miami is the worst affected region. The latter is a geographical hotspot to new HIV infections. Florida State was the leading region in terms of HIV infections a couple of years ago (Lagan & Maciel, 2010). Although older women are most at risk of being infected with HIV alongside mistreatment from partners, their cases are hardly reported across the board.
Aim(s) of the study what is the question they wanted to answer
The study aims to explore how inter-partner violence and HIV can be prevented or minimized altogether among older Hispanic women (Bonomi et al., 2007). From the outset of the study, it is evident that the two vices are major social challenges affecting communities living in Miami, Florida. Unless proactive action is taken against these challenges, the old-age women population might be grossly affected. In this research study, the authors are very keen on highlighting the menace and possible management measures of the social problems.
Participants used a particular inclusion criterion. As already hinted out, a total of fifty participants took part in the research study. The inclusion criteria involved Hispanic women over the age of 50 years. A total of five focus groups were instituted to facilitate the discussions and research process. It is crucial to mention that the inclusion criteria also entailed working around well-outlined themes.
The place where participants were recruited was also very important in the outcomes of the research study. All the participants who took part in the research study were drawn from the worst affected region namely, Miami within the state of Florida. This was necessary because the whole study was being undertaken in a region affected by inter-partner violence and HIV/AIDS scourge.
In regards to the number of participants that were selected for the study, it is vital to mention that they were fifty in total. On the other hand, the method to collect data was organized focus groups. The latter refers to the small discussion groups that deliberate on certain issues and come up with conclusions or findings. Questionnaires usually contain a list of questions whereby a respondent is supposed to give feedback to. In regards to the interview, they are usually conducted in-depth.
To assure rigor of the data, the research article should be gauged in terms of references, the use of illustrations such as figures and tables, as well as pictures to illustrate the aspects being discussed. Although no pictures were included in the qualitative research article, other illustrations such as flow charts and tables have been employed. Other aspects such as credibility and transferability were not included in the research study. In addition, there is no evidence of dependability and confirmability. The rigor of the data can also be established through statistical analysis of all the results documented in the study.
The nursing implication of the study is a vivid deposition of how nurses can be employed to offer community services such as public health hygiene. The authors have talked about a number of nursing implications of the study like offering evidenced-based care to the affected members of society. To recap it all, it is crucial to point out that nurses can play enormous roles in safeguarding the wellbeing of community members. For example, offering therapeutic care services and counseling is necessary among patients who are already suffering from the two conditions.
Bandura, A. (Ed.). (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.
Beaulaurier, R., Craig, S., & De La Rosa, M. (2009). Older Latina women and HIV/AIDS: An examination of sexuality and culture as they relate to risk and protective factors. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 52(1), 48-63.
Bonomi, A., Anderson, A., Reid, R., Carrell, D., Fishman, P., Rivara, F.,& Thompson, R. (2007). Intimate partner violence in older women. The Gerontologist, 47(1), 34-41.
Cianelli, R., Villegas, N., Lawson, S., Ferrer, L., Kaelber, L, Peragallo, N., & Yaya, A. (2013). Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: Intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care, 24(4):341-354.
Kim, Y., Peragallo, N., & DeForge, B. (2006). Predictors of participation in an HIV risk reduction intervention for socially deprived Latino women: A cross sectional cohort study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(5), 527- 534.
Lagan, A. L. & Maciel, M. (2010). Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: A qualitative study. Culture Health & Sexuality, 12(6), 705-719.