Gut Bacteria and Metabolic Disorders

Abstract

Rastelli, Knauf, and Cani (2018) studied how microorganisms that inhabit a human’s body connect with a person’s brain to find possible solutions to metabolic disorders. The authors identified several pathways that allow such communication. Critical approaches to developing nutrients that help to prevent diseases such as obesity or diabetes were developed. Therefore, the article provides a valuable overview of the existing knowledge on gut bacteria and its functioning while offering an insight into possible obesity interventions.

Library Assignment

Obesity has been a healthcare concern both in the US and around the world in recent years. Researchers have looked for interventions that would help people lose weight and minimize risks associated with the condition. Although primary interventions consist of lifestyle change by physical activity and diet, the question of underlying causes remains in place. Rastelli et al. (2018) have conducted research that focused on the impact of metabolism on a person’s appearance.

More specifically, the authors state that gut microbes have a direct influence on an individual’s ability to gain or lose weight. The complex mechanism that allows humans to process food is primarily attributed to gut bacteria. Previous researchers found that a large number of microbes inhabit the human body, most of which reside in the intestines. This paper aims to examine the article and evaluate whether the research is valuable and can be further utilized in other studies.

The problem in question is the connection between gut bacteria and a host’s body, which is clearly stated in the introduction to the paper. The question that Rastelli et al. (2018) explore is the mechanisms that regulate the interaction between such bacteria and its impact on possible metabolic disorders. The main point is in finding the intersection between gut bacteria and a human’s body to create interventions for various metabolic diseases, including obesity. The authors support their position with previous research, which confirms the connection between the two.

The initial hypothesis guiding the authors is that the bacteria in question can adversely affect a person’s health state. Rastelli et al. (2018) make their conclusions by studying literature and comparing the findings of previous studies. They conclude that hormones have an essential role in the connection between gut bacteria and the human body. Furthermore, nervous routes allow such interactions to occur. Thus, new approaches to treating metabolic diseases can be taken by applying this information in practice. Although Rastelli et al. (2018) clearly state the problem and their hypothesis, they do not provide a thorough explanation of the critical terms.

Research Methods Evaluation

The authors provide a literature review, which consists of experiments on mice, ferrets, and people. In addition, Rastelli et al. (2018) reference sources that prove the existence of microorganisms within a human boy in large quantities. For instance, Sandler, Fuchs, and Milo (2016) state that the ratio of human cells to bacteria is approximately 1:1. The empirical evidence provides a basis for this paper as it has proven that microorganisms affect an individual’s metabolism. The primary literature that Rastelli et al. (2018) base their study on consists of researches that established that “transferring the microbiota from mice with genetic obesity… to GF mice induced a higher body weight and fat mass gain” (p. 797). The papers cited by the authors are connected to the question or explain the mechanisms that can be affecting gut bacteria.

Thus, cited sources are pertinent to the study as they provide relevant information that the authors utilize for their work. The review is neither too broad nor too narrow as it is brief and consists only of information that helps understand the purpose of the paper. However, some sources that Rastelli et al. (2018) use in their research are older than five years, which poses a question regarding their relevancy. The section of the paper dedicated to previous studies shows no bias, as the authors are critical in analyzing previous research.

The study is current and relevant to the existing health issues because the primary objective is to find a solution for obesity. The research type utilized is a descriptive study where Rastelli et al. (2018) synthesize previous work to draw new conclusions regarding the issue; thus, it is an original work. Due to the nature of the piece, the authors do not apply measurement tools, sampling, or variables study. The structure of procedures is based on searching relevant information and combining it.

The authors do not use a sample to test their hypothesis instead, they apply a theoretical framework. The research is practical as it provides people with a thorough explanation of the pathways, which gut bacteria use within a human body. The study can be applied by designing interventions for people with obesity or other metabolic disorders because Rastelli et al. (2018) show that particular components can affect the behavior of gut bacteria. The study can be improved by introducing a sample size and testing the hypothesis that Rastelli et al. (2018) discuss.

The writing in the article is clear; however, many scientific terms may obstruct an understanding of the contents for the general public. Thus, providing additional explanations of the specific terms and mechanisms would help a broader audience to understand the material. Further research on the topic should be conducted to identify specific ways in which medical professionals can help people with obesity by affecting their gut bacteria.

The research data is analyzed by synthesizing the findings and the existing knowledge and creating a model that illustrates the connections that gut bacteria use. The results support the hypothesis of pathways that connect gut bacteria to the human body. Rastelli et al. (2018) do not focus on weaknesses or possible issues with their research. Instead, the authors emphasize the importance of future studies that can be applied in real-life settings.

The conclusion of the study relates to the original purpose as the authors identify the pathways that connect gut bacteria and metabolism. Rastelli et al. (2018) discuss the implication because more research is required to determine a practical application of the findings. The results will affect medical professionals who treat obese people as a new approach to interventions can be introduced. The recommendation regarding probiotic development that would treat metabolism illnesses is made.

Conclusion

Overall, by assessing the information from the article, one can argue that the authors have provided valuable insight into an important issue. The authors conducted an in-depth review of previous researches regarding gut bacteria and metabolic disorders. In addition, they identified pathways through which microorganisms can interact with human bodies, thus affecting them. Therefore, the study can be used for developing treatment plans, which would combat metabolic diseases.

References

Rastelli, M., Knauf, C., & Cani, P. D. (2018). Gut microbes and health: A focus on the mechanisms linking microbes, obesity, and related disorders. Obesity, 26(5), 792-800. Web.

Sandler, R., Fuchs, S., & Milo, R. (2016). Are we really vastly outnumbered? Revisiting the ratio of bacterial to host cells in humans. Cell, 164(3), 337-340. Web.