Population and Health Disparity
- Over 4.3 million Hispanics live in Florida.
- Obesity is prevalent among Hispanics, especially those coming from Mexico (“Current status,” 2018).
- Obesity occurs in Hispanics more often than in Whites.
- Obesity is one of the enduring health problems in US healthcare
- Obesity leads to heart diseases, loss of mobility, and diabetes.
- In Hispanics, obesity is more prevalent among women.
- Childhood obesity is likely to follow into adulthood (“Current status,” 2018).
Brief History of the Medical Condition in Hispanics
- Mexico is among the top three countries for high obesity rates.
- Obesity in Hispanics is related to generational poverty.
- Health education in Mexico and other Hispanic countries is lacking.
- Cultural and language barriers are an issue.
- Hispanic cuisine is predisposed towards high-calorie foods.
- Obesity has been historically prevalent in the Hispanic population.
- Migrants and 1st-generation Mexican-Americans are especially vulnerable to obesity (“Current status,” 2018).
- Liu, Hannon, Qi, Downs, and Marrero (2015) conducted a study on obesity in Latino children.
- Discoveries: Obesity prevalent in children regardless of sex and insurance status.
- Interventions may need to be directed at families.
- Isasi et al. (2015) analyzed the impact of acculturation on obesity rates in Hispanics.
- Research finds that prolonged exposure to the environment, rather than acculturation, leads to obesity.
- Kaiser et al. (2015) analyzed food patterns in young Latino children.
- Fast foods and irregular food patterns correlate with obesity.
Statistical Information and Comparisons
- The current adult obesity rate in Florida – 27.4%
- 26.8% of obese people in Florida are Hispanics.
- Obesity-related health issues (diabetes, hypertension) are rising.
- Hispanics are more likely to have obesity than whites (26.8% vs. 25.7%).
- Hispanics are less likely to have obesity than blacks (26.8% vs. 35.2%).
- Child obesity in Hispanics is at 12.4%.
- 60% of obese Hispanic people in Florida are aged between 26 and 64 (“The state of obesity, “2016).
Evidence-Based Cultural Values, Characteristics, and Communication
- Cultural values: kindness, relationship, respect, modesty.
- Have disproportionally high rates of obesity and diabetes.
- Prefer alternative therapies and traditional or herbal remedies.
- Health beliefs are determined by education, socioeconomic status, and acculturation.
- Barriers: Language, lack of insurance, distrust, immigrant status.
- Obesity may be associated with stress from living and working in the USA.
- Culturally competent interventions are necessary to improve patient outcomes (Juckett, 2013).
Health Disparities in Hispanic Population
- Higher rates of obesity when compared to the non-Hispanic White population.
- 51% more likely to die from diabetes
- Higher chances of developing cancer.
- High levels of depression and stress coupled with inaccessibility to mental care.
- Less access to quality dental care.
- Higher prevalence of asthma
- Higher chances of experiencing an adverse medical event during treatment (“Current status,” 2018).
Reasons for Health Disparities
- Lack of proper access to medical insurance.
- Cultural nuances and specifics of national cuisine.
- Socio-economic factors.
- Generational poverty and poor neighborhoods.
- Higher rates of criminal activity.
- Stress associated with legal status in the country.
- Educational inequality and language barriers (Juckett, 2013).
Culturally Competent Health Promotion Activities
- Specialized community education based on Hispanic cultural values.
- Pamphlets and leaflets about obesity written in Spanish.
- A balanced diet based on certain dishes from national cuisine.
- Bilingual communication during medical treatment.
- Using Hispanic nurses to establish trust.
- Introducing bilingual community workers to promote a healthy way of life.
- Internet-based health resources must be in English and Spanish (Juckett, 2013).
Health Literacy in Hispanics
- Health literacy in Hispanic populations is low.
- Education inequalities result in reduced health literacy.
- Hispanic patients face discrimination in the US medical system.
- Lack of health literacy in adjacent Hispanic countries.
- The majority of health information sites are English-only.
- Lack of community-based health literacy interventions.
- Inability to fluently communicate with doctors in Spanish (Isasi et al., 2015).
Political Means of Advocacy
- Nursing associations may provide support.
- Local legislators may be involved in health promotion.
- Advocacy for the overall reduction of obesity (includes Hispanics).
- Support from international organizations (Red Cross, USAID, etc.).
- Mobilization of Hispanic voters.
- Seeking favor with major political parties.
- Small-scale advocacy efforts through interaction.
Current status. (2018). Web.
Isasi, C. R., Ayala, G. X., Sotres-Alvarez, D., Madanat, H., Penedo, F., Loria, C. M., … Schneiderman, N. (2015). Is acculturation related to obesity in Hispanic/Latino adults? Results from the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos. Journal of Obesity, 2015, 1-8.
Juckett, G. (2013). Caring for Latino patients. American Family Physician, 87(1), 48-54.
Kaiser, L. L., Aguilera, A. L., Horowitz, M., Lamp, C., Johns, M., Gomez-Camacho, R., … de la Torre, A. (2015). Correlates of food patterns in young Latino children at high risk of obesity. Public Health Nutrition, 18(16), 2042-3050.
Liu, G. C., Hannon, T., Qi, R., Downs, S. M., & Marrero, D. G. (2015). The obesity epidemic in children: Latino children are disproportionately affected at younger ages. International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 2(1), 12-18.
The state of obesity in Florida. (2016). Web.