Research by Tacia, Biskupski, Pheley, and Lehto (2015) focused on determining barriers to the application of evidence-based practice (EBP), and how these barriers can be eliminated within the hospitals in the local United States. The investigators placed the study within the context of existing knowledge by conducting a comprehensive literature review before conducting primary data collection and analysis.
The study provides several recommendations, which when properly implemented, can help solve the problem under investigation. It will help in promoting educational programs meant to empower medical practitioners who are expected to implement EBP within the local hospitals. The purpose of the study is to find ways of eliminating barriers to EBP through various strategies, including the implementation of educational programs on methods and skills relevant for EBP implementation.
Review of the Literature
In this study, the authors conducted a comprehensive review of the existing literature. Several concepts were reviewed relating to the research goal and objectives. The first concept that was looked at during the literature review was evidence-based practiced. The authors used existing literature to explain this concept, its relevance in modern society, and reasons why it is increasingly becoming popular. The authors then focused on the concept of nursing, and how it relates to the concept of evidence-based practice. Of interest at this stage was to explain why nurses ought to understand EBP and be able to implement it in their practice.
The authors looked at the varying opinions of various scholars on this issue. Through the review of the literature, the authors of this article could find consensus on the issue under investigation. Most of the references used in this article were current. However, the researcher also used several articles published over 15 years ago. It was clear that the choice of references was based on their relevance to the study other than their year of application.
In this article, the theoretical framework and concepts are clearly defined. The authors were keen on ensuring that the theoretical concepts closely relate to the research. It helped in understanding the concepts discussed in the study. The research draws on nursing and leadership theories. Nursing theories are used because the research focused on how nurses can implement EBP. Leadership theories are used because it is believed that implementation of EBP requires the application of leadership principles.
The theoretical framework has been stated in this research piece to help support the conclusions made in the study. As Ellis (2016) says, choosing a suitable theoretical framework is important, especially when the study focuses on addressing an issue that requires practical solutions. In this piece of research, it was important to find ways in which barriers to implementation of EBP can be eliminated in the local hospitals within the United States.
In the study, both dependent and independent variables have been clearly been defined to enhance understanding of the issue being investigated. The dependent variable was the successful application of EBP. This dependent variable, as shown in the article, is affected by several independent variables. One of the independent variables identified in the article is the education of the practitioners. For them to apply EBP, they need the right education on what and how they need to act when handling patients based on the emerging techniques. Another independent variable is leadership within the local hospitals.
The administrators within these local hospitals must be committed to embracing EBP and must emphasize its application. Without their constant support, it may not be easy to implement EBP (Davies, 2012). The third independent variable is time. The more nurses apply EBP, the more they can eliminate the barriers associated with its application. It means that nurses who recently graduated from college may find it more challenging to embrace EBP than experienced nurses who understand what is expected of them.
The technology was another important variable. Practitioners need access to modern technology to help them apply EBP effectively. The operational definitions of each of the variables are given and they are concrete and measurable. The following research question was used to guide this study:
“What barriers do nurses encounter in relation to implementation of evidence-based practice?” (Tacia et al., 2015, p. 92).
In this study, the authors opted to use a qualitative research design. The approach was chosen because of the need to explain how the independent variables affect the dependent variable (implementation of EBP). The study was based on inductive reasoning, where observation was made, a pattern established, and new knowledge developed on how to deal with barriers to EBP. The participants were sampled from a community hospital in the Mid-western region of the United States (Tacia et al., 2015).
A stratified sampling technique was used to identify participants in various fields. A sample size of 131 nurses was selected to take part in the study. The use of the non-probability sampling technique was necessary to ensure that the needed participants are carefully selected. The study does not clearly outline the reliability and validity of the measurement tools. However, triangulation was used. The authors observed ethics in this study by contacting the administrators of the hospital before commencing the process of identifying the participants and collecting primary data. The identities of the hospital and all the participants were kept a secret.
Verbatim transcription was used in analyzing data. The authors of this article considered it very important to bring out the views of the respondents in the clearest manner possible. Data was presented in form of the direct explanation given by the respondents. The authors organized this section in a way that each of the barriers to EBP was discussed and the response given by the participants outlined. It made it easy for users of this document to understand the perception of the participants towards EBP, factors that hinder its implementation, and how these forces can be dealt with properly in an organizational setting. One of the main findings was that institutional and cultural barriers have limited the implementation of EBP. Limited knowledge and lack of motivation were the other limiting factors.
Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
The main strength of this study is that it uses a wide range of secondary data to support its comprehensive analysis of primary data. Its main weakness is that it failed to discuss how validity and reliability were enhanced. The findings made in this research can be generalized to other populations because the factors identified affect almost all the local hospitals in the United States. The conclusion and recommendations made in this study are significant to nursing because they explain what nurses should do to apply EBP in their respective places of work.
Davies, J. (2012). Nursing & health survival guide: Evidence based practice. London, UK: Pearson Education Limited.
Ellis, P. (2016). Evidence-based practice in nursing. New York, NY: SAGE Publications.
Tacia, L., Biskupski, K., Pheley, A., & Lehto, R. (2015). Identifying barriers to evidence-based practice adoption: A focus group study. Clinical Nursing Studies, 3(2), 90-95.