Diabetes mellitus denotes a chronic, permanent condition that affects the capability of the body to utilize the glucose in the blood. It exists in two main forms, which encompass type I diabetes (insulin dependent) and type II diabetes (non-insulin dependent). The body cells require the hormone insulin to aid in taking the right amount of glucose and utilizing it for energy (Sacks et al., 2011). The effects of diabetes mellitus include the failure of the body to generate an adequate amount of insulin (type I diabetes), problems when using the produced insulin (type II diabetes), or both. When the cells fail to absorb the glucose, it accumulates in the blood and could eventually damage blood vessels in different organs of the body, for instance, the heart, kidneys, and eyes.
Morbidity and Comorbidity
Internationally, diabetes mellitus has turned into a vital chronic public health predicament. In 2014, there were an approximated 390 million individuals having diabetes internationally, with non-insulin dependent diabetes representing roughly ninety percent of the instances. This was made up of eight percent of the grown-up population, with equivalent percentages in the cases of males and females. Between 2012 and 2014, diabetes is estimated to have led to one to five million deaths every year (Whiting, Guariguata, Weil, & Shaw, 2011). Research establishes that diabetes increases the likelihood of a person’s death twofold. Studies affirm that by 2035, the number of individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus will have increased to around 590 million. The international economic outlay of diabetes is approximated to be about 600 billion dollars.
Presently, incorporated diabetes care plans concentrate on diabetes-associated comorbidities such as cardiovascular illnesses, retinopathy (eye problems), diabetic foot, and renal disorder. Moreover, patients having diabetes do not just have diabetes-associated comorbidity as they at times suffer non-diabetes-associated comorbidity, for instance, musculoskeletal illnesses and depression. Comorbidity amid patients with diabetes is linked to significant consequences for medical and associated costs (Van Dooren et al., 2013). Furthermore, comorbidity is also established to complicate medical care provision and increase the expenditures of the people having diabetes. The majority of researches has been centered on a single medical care service, mostly care in an infirmary or restricted their attention to one extra comorbid illness.
Impact of Chronic Illness and Patient Morbidity
Chronic illnesses are the main results of diabetes mellitus progression, which decreases the wellbeing of the patients, draws heavy effects to the medical care scheme, and raises diabetic mortality. Approximately fifty to eighty percent of all people having diabetes pass away due to cardiovascular illness where nephropathy is amid other major causes of death. Permanent disablement is an ordinary result of diabetes, and late complexities of diabetes are key determining factors for disablement (Sacks et al., 2011). Additionally, retinopathy has been a critical cause of blindness across the globe, and medical epidemiological researches imply that foot ulcers cause over 85 percent of non-harrowing amputations in patients with diabetes.
A great incidence of chronic diabetes is evident amid patients that have diabetes mellitus (mainly type II) with a preponderance of neuropathic and cardiovascular complications. A high proportion of patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from other associated problems at the same time (Van Dooren et al., 2013). The average rate of glycated hemoglobin in patients with chronic diabetes problems was eight percent and sixty-three percent of the patients having type II diabetes mellitus-associated problems and a wretched glycemic control had glycated hemoglobin of less than 7.5 percent. On this note, studies propose that a plan and approach intended for the management of glycemic control and avoidance of diabetes mellitus problems ought to be implemented and that the management of diabetes mellitus should not be ignored. The intensification of complexities with aging and period with the disease, in addition to the geographic difference, all result in a requirement for excellent and adaptive strategies for preventing and managing diabetes mellitus. This is done with the purpose of allocating medical resources effectively and in accordance with the actual effect of the illness; that is, with respect to diabetes mellitus problems.
- Are you suffering from any type of comorbid illness, for instance, blindness or renal failure? If yes, state the comorbid illness.
- Who takes care of you when experiencing the problem and requiring assistance?
- How often do you check your blood sugar level?
- Is your blood sugar level high or low when experiencing the problem?
- Which is the nutritional guideline that you follow?
- What is the level of your illness?
- What are the symptoms that you experience the moment your blood sugar level is low/high?
- What do you do when your blood sugar level is low/high?
- How often do you normally seek medical care?
- What assistance do you feel that you need in the effective management of the disease?
Diabetes mellitus signifies a chronic, lifetime condition that affects the aptitude of the body to consume the glucose in the blood. It occurs in two major forms, which include type I diabetes and type II diabetes. Across the globe, diabetes mellitus has turned into a fundamental chronic public health predicament. Roughly fifty to eighty percent of all people having diabetes pass away because of cardiovascular illnesses. Moreover, nephropathy is amid other key causes of death. There is a need for outstanding and adaptive strategies for preventing and managing diabetes mellitus to rise above its effects.
Sacks, D. B., Arnold, M., Bakris, G. L., Bruns, D. E., Horvath, A. R., Kirkman, M. S., & Nathan, D. M. (2011). Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 34(6), 61-99.
Van Dooren, F. E., Nefs, G., Schram, M. T., Verhey, F. R., Denollet, J., & Pouwer, F. (2013). Depression and risk of mortality in people with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 8(3), 570-578.
Whiting, D. R., Guariguata, L., Weil, C., & Shaw, J. (2011). IDF diabetes atlas: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 94(3), 311-321.