Human aging is a universal and natural process characterized by gradual, and steady progression, which inevitably affects all levels of biological organization to one degree or another. The aging process at the level of the whole organism is not fully understood, and, therefore, there is no single point of view on the causes of age-related changes. Aging is a period in the life cycle experienced by everyone (Estebsari et al., 2020). However, studies of the mechanisms of aging are of absolute practical value, allowing people to determine the most effective methods of slowing it down. This essay aims to identify the main theories of aging, identify its effects, and provide recommendations for promoting successful aging.
Biological aging is a fundamental physical property of all living organisms; it is a process that is evolutionarily set and genetically predetermined. The human body functions within the time required to reach sexual maturity and perform the reproductive function, then its vital activity is disrupted. The biological theory of aging includes other theories of aging, such as evolutionary theory. The primary purpose of this theory is to explain why, if natural selection favors the optimal function of the organism, aging does not disappear (Arbuthnott et al., 2016). This theory explains this process because the body tends to get tired, not just an indirect selection.
The individual’s sense of their old age, reaction to their new social status, and adaptation to it is defined as psychological aging. One aspect of aging is that memory processes demonstrate a decline (Park & Festini, 2016). The image of “aging” transmitted in society becomes the starting point for the individual’s attitude to their age and the processes that occur. They begin to be ashamed of wrinkles, and gray hair and is having a hard time getting out of retirement. In turn, this affects their self-esteem and self-perception.
The individual is considered a part of a complex and multifaceted system called society. Older adults are characterized by invisibility in society, social isolation, physical and mental disability, and a lack of social roles other than family roles (grandparents). Thus, modern society does not guarantee social utility to age individuals. Instead, it dictates to them certain conditions of existence and calls it social aging. It is interpreted as a change in social roles, status, behavior, decreased social activity, and difficulty in self-service.
When serving elderly citizens, it is necessary to consider the facts of biological and psychological aging. The plan of measures for the care of the elderly includes catering, assistance in purchasing medicines for medical use, medical devices, food, and industrial necessities. In addition, assistance in obtaining medical care, including accompanying medical organizations, maintaining living conditions by hygienic requirements. It is also necessary to assist in the organization of legal aid and other legal services.
The medical consequence of the biological theory of structure is the gradual degradation of the body and the mental part of the person. As a result, there is a slowdown in the body’s physiological functions, and the effectiveness of the organs decreases. The psychological theory of aging includes such medical consequences as the nervous attitude of older people to people or situations around them. Their attitude to themselves, fatigue, and poor functioning of organs lead to a negative mood in the elderly. A similar situation is developing concerning social theories of aging. Older people no longer consider themselves beneficial to society and may also think that someone may offend them. In this regard, they have an adverse reaction to others.
In conclusion, to improve health and not feel bad in old age, one needs to take some steps. The most crucial step is a healthy lifestyle; it includes proper nutrition, giving up bad habits, and sports. It is also recommended to spend more time outdoors, such as walking. It is impossible to exclude medical monitoring of health and the intake of necessary vitamins. Observing simple manipulations every day will be an excellent opportunity to feel better in old age.
Aruthnott, D., Promislow, D. & Moorad, J. (2016). Evolutionary Theory and Aging. In Bengston, V.& Settersten, R. (Eds.) Handbook of theories of aging (pp. 113-136). Springer.
Estebsari, F., Dastoorpoor, M., Khalifehkandi, Z., Nouri, A., Mostafaei, D., Hosseini, M., Esmaeili, R. & Aghababaeian, H. (2020). The concept of successful aging: A review article. Current aging science, 13(1), 4-10.
Park, D. & Festini, S. (2016). Theories of memory and aging: A look at the past and a glimpse of the future. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 72(1), 82-90.