The participant who took part in the interview about the risk factors of type 2 diabetes also needs to understand what support needs exist so that A.R. is capable of preventing the development of the disease. If A.R. is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the following list of support needs will help the participant take care of himself and stabilize the condition.
To reduce the probability of contracting type 2 diabetes, it is strongly advisable to A.R. to find more information about the disease and possible ways of its prevention; patient education is one of the most relevant needs that allow the patient and the nurse/physician manage the disease more correctly. Nevertheless, patients who prefer self-management of the disease or its prevention should understand that such approaches do not always lead to improvements; therefore, patient education should not be dependent on the internet and web-sources only (Weymann, Härter, & Dirmaier, 2016). Instead, people with diabetes or those who belong to the risk group should have access to all needed information on the type 2 diabetes.
Dietary evaluation is also one of the support needs that can be helpful to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in A.R. Although food intake and socializing with friends and relatives relate to each other in A.R.’s opinion, nutritional status of A.R. should be noted by him and his physician or registered dietitian (O’Reilly, 2011). Self-management of A.R.’s diet is impossible because he, as well as his family members, might meet wrong decisions and lead the participant of the interview to malnutrition. The caregiver can also help the patient with diet guidelines and encourage the family to support the healthy lifestyle needed for prevention of the disease (O’Reilly, 2011).
Glucose and blood pressure control are obligatory for patients who belong to the high-risk group; although patients are able to measure glucose and blood pressure, it is also helpful to visit caregivers who can interpret the results and assess the risks (O’Reilly, 2011). Moreover, caregivers can also help the family and the patient determine the goals (clinical or psychological) and create a prevention plan together.
At last, peer support is also important for chronically ill patients and those who are in the risk group. As it was mentioned in the previous paper, the support group for people from the high-risk group is the intervention that the caregiver can provide. Moreover, peer support also can help with preventing depression and other mental illnesses that might develop in A.R. due to his condition (Morton & Alberti, 2010). Group meetings and training also can help A.R. manage stress and control diet and lifestyle. Conversations with people who suffer from the same condition provide a strong psychological support that can encourage A.R. to overcome challenges more effectively.
Healthy People 2020
The objectives of the governmental program ‘Healthy People 2020’ are to reduce the number of cases of diagnosed diabetes, reduce the death rate among the individuals who suffer from diabetes, encourage blood pressure control in persons with diabetes, increase the number of persons with diabetes whose condition is correctly diagnosed, and others (Healthy People 2020, 2016). To reduce the number of individuals who were newly diagnosed with diabetes, it is important to provide education materials for members of the risk groups.
If these people become more aware of diabetes and means that help to prevent it, it will be possible to prevent the development of the disease in Americans from 8.0 new cases per 1,000 population to 7.2 cases (Healthy People 2020, 2016). The death rates are connected to patients’ unwillingness to follow prescribed orders and lifestyle; raising awareness in patients of connection between smoking, poor food choice, neglect of blood pressure control and lethal outcomes will decrease the death rate among the patients with diabetes.
As undiagnosed diabetes can also lead to fatal outcomes because of the individuals’ ignorance of possible threats, it is important to promote blood glucose tests even among those patients who do not belong to a high-risk group. Frequently the reason of death is individual’s ignorance about his/her health status and condition. Blood pressure control is also related to lethal outcomes; that is why caregivers need to encourage patients with diabetes to monitor their blood pressure in order to avoid hypertension.
Nursing Professionals’ Role
Nursing professionals need to understand their responsibilities and boundaries; for example, nursing professionals can provide psychological support for patients who have been diagnosed with diabetes. Moreover, educating patients about the condition and how it can be managed can bring relief or reduce psychological stress. Blood glucose awareness can help the patient overcome anxiety connected to diabetes and hypoglycemia (Morton & Alberti, 2010). Group therapy and relaxation techniques provided by the caregiver can also significantly improve the mental state of A.R. (Morton & Alberti, 2010). It is necessary for a nursing professional to raise awareness of the possible consequences of A.R.’s lifestyle and warn him how his food choices and habits may affect the development of the disease.
Environment and Patient’s Health
Environment and patient’s health are directly connected; competent professionals and collaborative, friendly relationships can have an impact on patient’s health status (Morton & Alberti, 2010). Patient-centered culture has been developed to assure that the patient is approached as an individual, not as another patient whose fears, wishes, and interests are neglected. Such approach helps develop trust between the patient and the nursing professional. Thus, probability rate of a misdiagnosis or mistreatment decreases. A clean environment is essential to prevent any spread of infections; such environment will be perceived by the patients as less stressful and reduce their anxiety.
The white walls and sterile units of a hospital do not always have a positive impact on patient’s mood. It is possible that photographs of nature or artworks on walls of the hospital will help patients feel ‘at home’; moreover, access to fresh air will directly influence patients’ health and reduce anxiety. Children and adolescents also have a need to feel welcomed, so it is possible to organize group meetings with their peers as well.
Social determinants, such as income, housing, access to nutritious food, and others have been proven to have a direct impact on the development of type 2 diabetes. Individuals with lower income are “2 to 4 times more likely to develop diabetes” than individuals with better income and education (Hill, Nielsen, & Fox, 2013, 69). Chronic stress that such individuals experience can lead to depression and anxiety; these, in turn, can result in self-destructive behaviors such as drinking and smoking (Hill et al., 2013).
When less advantaged patients are diagnosed with diabetes, a significant part of their income is spent on the medical insurance; hence more stress and severe depression that lead to complications. Social determinants are not to be neglected; all individuals with type 2 diabetes deserve the right to receive necessary medical assistance.
Healthy People 2020. (2016). Web.
Hill, J., Nielsen, M., & Fox, M. H. (2013). Understanding the social factors that contribute to diabetes: A means to informing health care and social policies for the chronically ill. The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 67-72.
Morton, A., & Alberti, G. (2010). Emotional and psychological support and care in diabetes. Web.
O’Reilly, C. A. (2011). Managing the care of patients with diabetes in the home care setting. Diabetes Spectrum, 18(3), 162-166.
Weymann, N., Härter, M., & Dirmaier, J. (2016). Information and decision support needs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Health informatics journal, 22(1), 46-59.