The research article that is chosen for analysis can be found in the international peer-reviewed journal (BMJ Quality and Safety, 2016). It investigates relations between the staffing and consumer’s safety. The authors tend to answer the questions that were not previously addressed by other researchers but tend to be critical for healthcare providers. In particular, Alenius, Tishelman, Runesdotter, and Lindqvist (2014) conducted this research to find out:
- “how RNs assess the safety of patient care at their workplace
- how factors in RNs’ work environment are related to their assessments” (p. 242).
The Main Study Variables
The study has three main independent variables that deal with the role in caring:
- “staffing and resource adequacy
- collegial nurse–physician relations
- nurse manager ability, leadership and support of nurses” (Alenius et al., 2014, p. 243).
They all refer to the nursing work environment and are considered in relation to the patient safety. They are measured using a nominal scale.
The dependent variable is the very global patient safety grade. It is based on the responses to the assessment. This variable is measured with the help of a five-point ordinal scale. As these variables seemed to be impossible to count from the very beginning, they were turned into discrete ones (Stephanie, 2010).
Control variables include individual characteristics, sex, and education of the sample. They are given in average numbers to simplify the study and avoid the creation of unnecessary variables.
The study uses central tendencies when discusses the sample’s characteristics as variables. Average data is provided to make the research more generalized and easier to conduct. In this way, the results gained with its help can be seen as appropriate ones in the different locations. The authors measure it with the help of the mean (for example, the RNs “had a mean age of 39 years” (Alenius et al., 2014, p. 245). It is a simple arithmetic mean, the calculation of which does not require much time and effort. It was also indicated that “the probability of scoring the patient safety grade one full-scale step better using the mean” (Alenius et al., 2014, p. 245).
The data that is discussed in the research was analyzed in several different ways depending on its source and role. In this way, “an internal consistency test, Cronbach’s α” was used to prove the reliability of the independent variables (Alenius et al., 2014, p. 242). When analyzing the data, the researchers referred to descriptive statistics. They used cross-tabulations, frequencies, and graphs. In this way, they avoided data anomalies and described the participants. “Correlation coefficient tests (Pearson and Spearman) were used to investigate correlations between items” (Alenius et al., 2014, p. 244). A proportional odds model allowed the researchers to distinguish the influence of the independent variables on the dependent one in the framework of multivariate analysis (Statistical analyses, n.d.). Bivariate regression models were applied to both types of variables. Predictor plots and a score test allowed the authors to check the assumptions.
With the help of the tests, it was proved that the nursing work environment has a great influence on the way they evaluate the safety of the consumer. It was proved that due to the adequate staffing and resources, the results become better in 2.5 times. The RN’s involvement in the care delivery was stated to have a positive influence on the patient safety. It was also found that one of the independent variables had almost no influence on the dependent one. It was the work experience.
Alenius, L., Tishelman, C., Runesdotter, S., & Lindqvist, R. (2014). Staffing and resource adequacy strongly related to RNs’ assessment of patient safety: a national study of RNs working in acute-care hospitals in Sweden. BMJ Quality and Safty, 23(1), 242-249.
BMJ Quality and Safety. (2016). Home page. Web.
Statistical analyses. (n.d.). Web.
Stephanie. (2010). Discrete vs continuous variables. Web.