Nursing Theory Analysis: Human Becoming Theory

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A grand range theory of human becoming, which was developed in 1981 by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, was selected for this study. According to its hypothesis, nurses are encouraged to aim at the maintenance of their patients’ high living standards. The following paper is intended to describe and broadly discuss the human becoming theory.

Theory Name and Background

As it is mentioned above, this paper will cover different aspects of the human becoming theory that was presented by Rosemarie Rizzo Parse (1992). This professional medical worker graduated from the University of Pittsburgh. After that, she became a member of the faculty at the same educational institution. She also has experience working as a dean of Nursing School at Duquesne University. This doctor is currently a Visiting Scholar and Consultant at the New York University College of Nursing. It would be proper to mention that Parse (1992) has written more than thirty doctoral dissertations during her career that is important for the entire nursing industry.

As to the theorist’s background, Rosemarie Parse (1992) was professing various nursing subjects at Niehoff Chair at Loyola University in Chicago. Moreover, the medical worker is also known as a founder and editor of a professional journal named Nursing Science Quarterly. However, the doctor also occupies the position of a President of Discovery International, Inc. Due to such successes in her career, Parse (1992) had all opportunities and capabilities to establish the Institute of Humanbecoming, which is based on the theory that will be overviewed more broadly in the context below. All the experiences mentioned in the previous two paragraphs had a tremendous impact on the development of this doctrine and its key concepts (Smith & Parker, 2015). As the professional nurse faced many discrepancies of what is required by national health standards and the real picture in hospitals, she wanted to change the conditions almost in every medical institution in the United States of America. This factor was the major reason why Parse (1992) started to publish her ideas and hypotheses that were later referred to as a human becoming theory. It would be proper to mention that the majority of significant changes in any sphere happen because of people’s dissatisfaction with particular policies that might be inefficient in their opinions.

Indeed, almost every discovery in the world becomes an object of criticism. This paragraph will examine crucial references to the original work of Parse (1992) and other writers’ attitudes towards the theory of human becoming. To begin with, it is essential to state that the doctrine mentioned above is congruent with the personal values of individuals who might follow its ideas. Therefore, medical personnel must agree to the worldview that is consistent with the given study. Otherwise, they might not have the appropriate experience of truly using its efficient concepts. Some scholars claim that the theory of human becoming also should be congruent with various professional values (Smith & Parker, 2015). Moreover, it is considered to be socially significant as its hypotheses imply particular changes in the lives of patients and their nurses.

The primary problem that is addressed by the theory of human becoming is aimed at making such factors as rhythm and transcendence of a person’s body coexist with each other. It would be proper to mention that the subject’s context also explains that people and their environment must create mutual rhythm patterns and exist within them. As can be seen, the theory presents more of a philosophical point of view on life. Therefore, it is criticized by international nursing society (Smith & Parker, 2015). Its aspects present only an abstract understanding of health and well being, which is not the main focus of medical practice, whereas doctors and their auxiliaries aim at their patients’ physical conditions.

Theory Description

The theory of human becoming uses an inductive method of reasoning. As stated by Parse (1992), “the assumptions underpinning the theory were synthesized from works by the European philosophers, Heidegger, Sartre, and Merleau-Ponty, along with works by the pioneer American nurse theorist, Martha Rogers” (p.39). It would be proper to mention that this method presents the opposite qualities that are used in a deductive model. In particular, the chosen type of reasoning includes all the observations made by the author to generalize those (Butts & Rich, 2010). Also, it can be explained as a strategy that implies concluding all the gathered and credible data. To prove the given statement, it is essential to stress that the assumptions made by Parse (that will be listed in the context below) about human existence and harmony with the world are summarized at the end of the theory and form its final idea.

This section will describe the major concepts of the human becoming theory. To provide a general understanding of the study’s primary aspects to the reader, they will be listed below:

  • Meaning. Human becoming implies determining individual meaning in various situations and cases in the subjunctive process that considers living priorities. People’s reality obtains its meaning only after acquiring appropriate life experience. Moreover, Parse (1992) stated that living creatures exist within the environment that they create.
  • Rhythm. According to the theory of human becoming, every person must create rhythm patterns to remain in harmony with the universe.
  • Transcendence. Also, the discussed hypothesis says that every human being sets certain frames of one’s development that he or she aims at during one’s treatment course (Smith & Parker, 2015). However, every individual undergoes the process of constant transformation.

The concepts mentioned above are identified with the help of a person’s world and life perception (Smith & Parker, 2015). Every individual might interpret these terms differently as all human beings have various experiences of life. It would be proper to mention that a surrounding society also plays a major role in the identification of the factors listed above (Butts & Rich, 2010). From the theorist’s perspective, these concepts are determined theoretically because there is no method that might be able to check all the assumptions provided before operationally. It is necessary to mention that the author of this theory (Rosemarie Parse) is consistent with the use of its aspects and other terms considered in it.

The concept points discussed in the previous section of the paper are defined implicitly. Before discussing the appliance of this interpretation to the theory, it would be proper to explain how it can be used. To begin with, any implicit statement or hypothesis is an indirect element of a persuasive context. Therefore, readers are expected to understand the key concepts of the given theory by associating it with their assumptions as to any expressed topic (Butts & Rich, 2010). As it is possible to see in the example of the human becoming theory, it does not give clear definitions of what must be addressed or reconsidered in people’s nature. However, the author expresses her ideas and hypotheses that are intended to give a reader an understanding of the general purpose and premise of the observed material (Smith & Parker, 2015). The method of implicit description allows an author to share his or her initial ideas and concerns, instead of transforming them into specific and clear statements.

The major concepts of man and becoming have many uniting factors between them. To begin with, it is necessary to state that a human is open, and one is free to choose any meaning in different situations. As stated by Parse (1992), “The human is unitary, continuously constituting patterns of relating and the human is transcending multidimensionally with the possibles” (p. 37). It is obvious that the author’s assumptions stress on people’s relationships with various external and natural factors and phenomena. Moreover, Parse (1992) states that “becoming is unitary human-living health, rhythmically constituting human-universe process, patterns of relating value priorities, unitary human’s emerging” (p. 37). According to what has been said by the theorist, individuals must always remember their identities’ connections with the environment and universe in general.


This section of the paper will identify explicit and implicit assumptions underlying the theory of human becoming. As it is mentioned above, the main idea promoted by Rosemarie Parse (1992) focuses on ensuring high-quality medical services to patients. Moreover, nurses must consider the personal preferences of every client to provide the most efficient assistance to them. Organizing a comfortable and beneficial environment is one of the most essential aspects that must be addressed y every medical worker during healing processes (Smith & Parker, 2015). The human becoming theory builds on the assumptions that imply patients’ individual requirements for the help they receive.

This paragraph is intended to examine whether the theory of human becoming has a description of the four concepts of the nursing metaparadigm or not. To begin with, it would be proper to mention that such factors as person component, environment, health, and nursing form the metaparadigm mentioned above. Indeed, the theory developed by Parse (1992) gives an accurate explanation of these aspects from the author’s specific perspective. For instance, the person component is described as an open being that might differ from the majority of surrounding objects. In turn, the environment element implies every thought within the individual’s mind and one’s experiences in different spheres (Butts & Rich, 2010). Moreover, it can be interpreted as something complementary and inseparable. The health component is referred to as an open process of existing and evolving as it involves patients’ life values and their syntheses. In the end, the aspect of nursing in the table of metaparadigms is understood as a human study or even art that implements abstract bodies of theoretical knowledge to assist clients appropriately.

The following part of the analysis will discuss the clarity of the human becoming theory and determine whether it has lucidness and consistency or not. Unfortunately, its entire context is a complicated piece of professional literature. To understand the premise of the context precisely, it is necessary to have practice in reading and writing such a style (Butts & Rich, 2010). Moreover, it would be proper to examine other works of the theory’s author to obtain the general idea of what her career is focused on at the present moment. Although the theory has many sound pieces of advice, it does not describe any processes that might be implemented by practitioners in healing processes. It is an interesting fact that people who are new to the sphere of medical research and studies are not able to understand the primary premise of Parse’s human becoming theory. It is essential to state that it does not have lucidness and consistency. Perhaps, the theory would be more useful for its readers if they grasped all the read material from the first attempt.


This paragraph will explain how the doctrine would guide nursing actions. It is proper to mention that the theory of human becoming implies medical workers’ congruence with their patients. This allows caregivers to understand the primary needs of their clients better and use this knowledge to create beneficial conditions in a setting for them. According to the theory mentioned above, nurses also must evaluate various social values of people that seek help at hospitals (Butts & Rich, 2010). Therefore, medical personnel is expected to satisfy other people’s expectations as to their working process. It would be proper to mention that the majority of people who are not familiar with the sphere of medicine might have false imaginations about different processes performed by professionals in this industry (Butts & Rich, 2010). Therefore, many experts criticize the human becoming theory for such a discrepancy. However, if a nurse does not follow the rules of congruence with one’s patients, he or she is unlikely to use the given theory appropriately because this person’s beliefs contradict his or her actions.

The following section is intended to describe specifically how the human becoming theory can be used in the area of nursing practice. To begin with, it is necessary to state that the doctrine described above is a transformative approach to various levels of medical practice. Therefore, almost every hospital worker related to medicine might refer to its statements to treat people in different stadia of their healing processes. Moreover, the hypotheses developed by Parse (1992) do not have anything in common with traditional or regular treatment processes. In particular, medical workers are not encouraged to seek various methods of “fixing” their patients’ problems (Smith & Parker, 2015). Moreover, the context of the discussed doctrine gives nurses the ability to see their clients’ perspectives. In turn, this factor allows medical workers to “stay” with people who seek help and provide it to them to meet desired health outcomes (Smith & Parker, 2015). In the end, it would be proper to mention that relationships among nurses and people whom they treat on a daily basis cocreate changes in health patterns.


Rosemarie Rizzo Parse is a highly-educated person who underwent many courses in different specialized educational institutions. Nowadays, she professes nursing subjects to students of Loyola University in Chicago. Her theory of human becoming considers both physical and spiritual states of patients. According to this doctrine, every client might have his or her own view of nursing practices. Moreover, medical personnel must adhere to this vision to make their patients more comfortable in hospital settings and create beneficial conditions for healing.


Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2010). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Parse, R. R. (1992). Human becoming: Parse’s theory of nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5(1), 35-42. Web.

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

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