Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman

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The Neuman’s Systems Model offers the best nursing ideas in order to provide quality care to different patients. Neuman’s model encourages every caregiver to help his or her patients using a collective approach. The model also encourages clinicians to use the four meta-paradigms of nursing towards better health outcomes. These four meta-paradigms of nursing include “person, health, environment, and nursing practice” (Fulbrook, 1991, p. 32). This discussion examines how Betty Neuman views the four meta-paradigms of nursing.

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Betty Neuman’s model “treats people as multidimensional beings” (Fulbrook, 1991, p. 34). The theorist also explains why people have different variables. Nurses can consider such variables in order to provide the best support to their patients. Human beings have “socio-cultural, developmental, and psychological subsystems Fulbrook, 1991, p. 33). Physicians can use these subsystems to analyze and understand the experiences of their patients. Neuman also explains how human beings are multidimensional in nature. These dimensions work together in every person’s system. A competent caregiver will use such subsystems and dimensions to provide the best care to their patients (Fulbrook, 1991). Clinicians can use Neuman’s ideas to support the changing health needs of their patients.

Our surrounding environment forms the second meta-paradigm. Human beings encounter different forces or energies in their lives. The environment dictates most of these forces. Betty Neuman “identifies the environment as the totality of external and internal forces in a person’s life” (Fulbrook, 1991, p. 35). The internal environment “will always exist within the client’s system” (Haggart, 1993, p. 1920). Such forces can arise from interpersonal, extra-personal, or intrapersonal relationships. Human beings also create new environments without their knowledge. Such imaginary environments symbolize people’s incompleteness or wholeness (Haggart, 1993).

The other meta-paradigm is health. Neuman “expects every system or part to be in harmony with the whole body” (Fulbrook, 1991, p. 35). The theorist encourages nurses to establish the best interaction between the above two meta-paradigms. A person’s system “will move towards death if the available energy is unable support his or her health” (Fulbrook, 1991, p. 35). According to Haggart (1993, p. 1918), “people’s systems will move towards wellness if the environment supplies more energy”. The environment provides the required amount of energy to support human life. The environment can also produce stressors that can affect human life. Nurses can use Neuman’s ideas and concepts to improve the health outcomes of their patients.

The “fourth meta-paradigm is nursing practice” (Haggart, 1993, p. 1920). Neuman uses this meta-paradigm to develop her nursing model. According to Neuman, nursing is “a unique medical practice aimed at supporting the health needs of different people” (Haggart, 1993, p. 1920). Nurses and clinicians should treat human beings as complete systems. Neuman encourages clinicians to assist families, individuals, communities, and groups in order to achieve the best health outcomes. Nursing practice focuses on the stability of every patient’s system. Nurses can embrace “the best interventions to reduce every stressor in the environment” (Fulbrook, 1991, p. 38). It is appropriate for caregivers to help their patients using the best interventions. The above description summarizes Neuman’s Systems Model. Clinicians can develop their nursing philosophies using this model. The above concepts are critical towards supporting the experiences of different clients. These four meta-paradigms of nursing explain why Neuman’s Systems Model is widely used in every corner of the world (Fulbrook, 1991).

Reference List

Fulbrook, P. (1991). The application of the Neuman Systems Model to intensive care. Intensive Care Nursing, 7(1), 28-39.

Haggart, M. (1993). A critical analysis of Neuman’s systems model in relation to public health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18(1), 1917-1922.

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NursingBird. (2022, April 28). Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman. Retrieved from


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"Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman." NursingBird, 28 Apr. 2022,


NursingBird. (2022) 'Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman'. 28 April.


NursingBird. 2022. "Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman." April 28, 2022.

1. NursingBird. "Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman." April 28, 2022.


NursingBird. "Meta-Paradigms: Betty Neuman." April 28, 2022.